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Most sentences also contain at least one noun phrase, typically denoting a person or thing. A noun phrase consists of a noun plus any modifiers such as determiners, adjectives, and prepositional phrases.
The two most important noun phrases are the subject and the object. Their exact meaning depends on the choice of verb, but loosely speaking, the subject is the person or thing that carries out the action, and the object is the person or thing that is directly affected by the action.
In Elefen, the subject always precedes the verb, and the object always follows:
In some cases, for reasons of style or clarity, you may want to place the object of the verb at the beginning of the sentence. In these cases, the object must be followed by a comma, and an object pronoun is used after the verb:
Most verbs require a subject, but many do not require an object.
Another common sentence component is the complement. This is an extra description of the subject that can follow verbs like es (be), deveni (become), pare (seem), and resta (remain):
Some languages also allow the object to have a complement, as in “I find this cheese disgusting” or “They elected him president”. This type of complement does not occur in Elefen.
One other major sentence component is the prepositional phrase, which adds detail to a preceding noun or verb, or to the sentence as a whole:
In addition to phrases, some sentences contain clauses, which resemble smaller sentences nested within the larger sentence. They can modify noun phrases, verb phrases, or the whole of the larger sentence: