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gramatica:en:word_formation

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gramatica:en:word_formation [2019/07/15 16:03]
Simon [Technical affixes]
gramatica:en:word_formation [2019/08/10 11:48] (corente)
Simon
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 +{{page>​naviga}}
 +
 +====== Word formation ======
 +
 +In Elefen, new words can be formed by adding [[#​prefixes|prefixes]] or [[#​suffixes|suffixes]] to existing words, or by combining two existing words as a [[#​compounds|compound noun]].
 +
 +It's also possible to reuse [[adjectives#​adjectives_as_nouns|adjectives as nouns]], and [[verbs#​verbs_as_nouns|verbs as nouns]], without adding an affix.
 +
 +A small number of colour adjectives (such as **ambar** and **orania**) are derived without an affix from names of objects.
 +
 +===== Prefixes =====
 +
 +**Anti-** means "​anti-"​. It forms adjectives and nouns that indicate opposition:
 +
 +  * **sosia** (~)→(~) **antisosial** – anti-social
 +  * **avion** (~)→(~) **antiavion** – anti-aircraft
 +  * **proton** (~)→(~) **antiproton** – anti-proton
 +
 +**Auto-** means "​self-"​ or "​auto-"​. It forms nouns, verbs, and adjectives that indicate reflexive or automatic actions:
 +
 +  * **respeta** – respect (~)→(~) **autorespeta** – self-respect
 +  * **flue** – flow (~)→(~) **autoflue** – to wordwrap
 +  * **adere** – adhere (~)→(~) **autoaderente** – self-adhesive
 +
 +**Des-** means "​un-"​ or "​dis-"​ in the sense of undoing an action. It forms verbs. It simplifies to **de-** before S, Z, X, or J:
 +
 +  * **botoni** – to button (~)→(~) **desbotoni** – to unbutton
 +  * **infeta** – to infect (~)→(~) **desinfeta** – to disinfect
 +  * **jela** – to freeze (~)→(~) **dejela** – to thaw
 +  * **sifri** – to encode (~)→(~) **desifri** – to decode
 +
 +**Inter-** means "​inter-"​. It forms nouns, verbs, and adjectives that indicate mutual actions or states:
 +
 +  * **cambia** – to change (~)→(~) **intercambia** – to exchange
 +  * **nasional** – national (~)→(~) **internasional** – international
 +
 +**Media-** means "​mid-"​. It forms nouns that indicate the midpoint of something:
 +
 +  * **note** – night (~)→(~) **medianote** – midnight
 +  * **estate** – summer (~)→(~) **mediaestate** – midsummer
 +  * **punto** – point (~)→(~) **mediapunto** – midpoint
 +
 +**Non-** means "​un-",​ "​non-"​. It forms adjectives and nouns indicating opposites. It simplifies to **no-** before N:
 +
 +  * **justa** – just (~)→(~) **nonjusta** – unjust
 +  * **ativa** – active (~)→(~) **nonativa** – inactive
 +  * **nativa** – native (~)→(~) **nonativa** – non-native
 +  * **nesesada** – necessary (~)→(~) **nonesesada** – unnecessary
 +  * **crede** – belief (~)→(~) **noncrede** – disbelief
 +
 +**Pos-** means "​post-"​. It forms nouns, verbs, and ajectives that refer to a time (or place) that lies after or behind (**[[prepositions#​pos|pos]]**) another:
 +
 +  * **graduada** – graduate (~)→(~) **posgraduada** – postgraduate
 +  * **media** – middle (~)→(~) **posmedia** – afternoon
 +  * **alveolo** – alveolus (~)→(~) **posalveolal** – postalveolar
 +
 +**Pre-** means "​pre-"​. It forms nouns, verbs, and ajectives that refer to a time (or place) that lies before or in front of (**[[prepositions#​ante|ante]]**) another:
 +
 +  * **graduada** – graduate (~)→(~) **pregraduada** – undergraduate
 +  * **istoria** – history (~)→(~) **preistoria** – prehistory
 +  * **judi** – judge (~)→(~) **prejudi** – prejudge
 +
 +**Re-** means "​re-"​. It forms verbs indicating a repeated action, or an action in the reverse direction:
 +
 +  * **comensa** – to begin / to start (~)→(~) **recomensa** – to begin again / to restart
 +  * **pleni** – to fill (~)→(~) **repleni** – to refill / to replenish
 +  * **paia** – to pay (~)→(~) **repaia** – to pay back / to repay
 +  * **veni** – to come (~)→(~) **reveni** – to come back / to return
 +
 +**Su-** means "​sub-"​ or "​under-"​. It forms nouns, verbs, and adjectives that indicate a lower point in a hierarchy:
 +
 +  * **teninte** – lieutenant (~)→(~) **suteninte** – sublieutenant
 +  * **divide** – to divide (~)→(~) **sudivide** – to subdivide
 +  * **consensa** – conscious (~)→(~) **suconsensa** – subconscious
 +  * **indise** – index figure (~)→(~) **suindise** – subscript
 +  * **campion** – champion (~)→(~) **sucampion** – runner-up
 +
 +**Supra-** means "​super-"​ or "​over-"​. It forms nouns, verbs, and adjectives that indicate a higher point in a hierarchy:
 +
 +  * **computador** – computer (~)→(~) **supracomputador** – supercomputer
 +  * **pasa** – to pass (~)→(~) **suprapasa** – to surpass
 +  * **dramosa** – dramatic (~)→(~) **supradramosa** – overdramatic / sensational
 +  * **fem** – woman (~)→(~) **suprafem** – superwoman
 +  * **natural** – natural (~)→(~) **supranatural** – supernatural
 +
 +**Vis-** means "​vice-"​. It forms nouns indicating deputies:
 +
 +  * **presidente** – president (~)→(~) **vispresidente** – vice-president
 +  * **re** – king (~)→(~) **visre** – viceroy
 +
 +**Bon-** and **mal-** form good and bad (or mistaken) versions of adjectives and verbs, sometimes metaphorically. **Mal-** is often equivalent to "​mis-"​ in English:
 +
 +  * **parla** – speak (~)→(~) **bonparlante** – eloquent
 +  * **vende** – sell (~)→(~) **bonvendeda** – bestselling
 +  * **dise** – say (~)→(~) **bondise** – bless
 +  * **veni** – come (~)→(~) **bonveni** – welcome
 +  * **acusa** – accuse (~)→(~) **malacusa** – libel / slander
 +  * **comprende** – understand (~)→(~) **malcomprende** – misunderstand
 +  * **nomida** – named (~)→(~) **malnomida** – misnamed
 +  * **odorosa** – smelly (~)→(~) **malodorosa** – foul-smelling
 +
 +[[Numbers]] and [[numbers#​fractions|fractions]] are used as prefixes on certain words. With family members, numbers denote increasingly distant generations,​ like sequences of "​great-"​ in English:
 +
 +  * **avo** – grandfather (~)→(~) **duavo** – great-grandfather
 +  * **neta** – granddaughter (~)→(~) **treneta** – great-great-granddaughter
 +  * **pede** – foot (~)→(~) **cuatropede** – quadruped(al)
 +  * **sore** – sister (~)→(~) **duisore** – half-sister
 +  * **galon** – gallon (~)→(~) **cuatrigalon** – quart
 +
 +===== Suffixes =====
 +
 +Many suffixes start with a vowel. When such a suffix is added to a word that already ends in a vowel, the existing vowel is dropped, unless it was the only vowel in the original word:
 +
 +  * **fruta** – fruit (~)→(~) **frutosa** – fruity
 +  * **jua** – game (~)→(~) **jueta** – toy
 +  * **fe** – fairy (~)→(~) **fein** – fairy-like
 +
 +Where a suffix would create an [[spelling_and_pronunciation#​phonotactics|invalid vowel sequence]], the second vowel of the sequence is dropped:
 +
 +  * **comedia** + **-iste** (~)→(~) (comediiste) (~)→(~) **comediste** – comedian
 +
 +There are two exceptions to these rules:
 +
 +  * **tre** + **-i** (~)→(~) **tri**
 +  * **tre** + **-uple** (~)→(~) **truple**
 +
 +===== Suffix forming verbs =====
 +
 +Just like other [[verbs]], the verbs produced by this suffix can be used both [[verbs#​transitivity|transitively and intransitively]],​ or [[verbs#​verbs_as_nouns|as nouns]].
 +
 +**-i** is added to nouns and adjectives to form verbs meaning "to become ...", "to change into ...". As a special case, this also includes verbs meaning "to emit a substance or a new part":
 +
 +  * **arco** – arch (~)→(~) **arci** – to arch
 +  * **roja** – red (~)→(~) **roji** – to redden
 +  * **umida** – damp (~)→(~) **umidi** – to humidify
 +  * **duple** – double (~)→(~) **dupli** – to double
 +  * **saliva** – saliva (~)→(~) **salivi** – to salivate
 +  * **flor** – flower (~)→(~) **flori** – to blossom
 +
 +**-i** also makes verbs meaning "to use ..." (typically as a tool or device), or "to apply ..." (a substance or a convention):​
 +
 +  * **boton** – button (~)→(~) **botoni** – to button
 +  * **telefon** – telephone (~)→(~) **telefoni** – to telephone
 +  * **sponja** – sponge (~)→(~) **sponji** – to sponge
 +  * **pinta** – paint (~)→(~) **pinti** – to paint
 +  * **nom** – name (~)→(~) **nomi** – to name
 +
 +===== Suffixes forming adjectives =====
 +
 +Just like other [[adjectives]],​ the adjectives produced by these suffixes can be reused as nouns denoting people or things that have the specified quality.
 +
 +**-in** is added to a noun to create an adjective meaning "​similar to ...", "​-like",​ "​-ish":​
 +
 +  * **ami** – friend (~)→(~) **amin** – friendly
 +  * **enfante** – child (~)→(~) **enfantin** – childlike / childish
 +  * **fantasma** – ghost (~)→(~) **fantasmin** – ghostly
 +  * **menta** – mint (~)→(~) **mentin** – minty
 +  * **monstro** – monster (~)→(~) **monstrin** – monstrous
 +  * **serpente** – snake (~)→(~) **serpentin** – snakelike / serpentine
 +
 +**-osa** is added to a noun to make an adjective meaning "full of ..." or "made of ...":
 +
 +  * **zucar** – sugar (~)→(~) **zucarosa** – sugary
 +  * **oro** – gold (~)→(~) **orosa** – made of gold
 +  * **capel** – hair (~)→(~) **capelosa** – hairy
 +  * **festa** – holiday (~)→(~) **festosa** – festive
 +  * **melma** – slime (~)→(~) **melmosa** – slimy
 +  * **jua** – game (~)→(~) **juosa** – playful
 +  * **caos** – chaos (~)→(~) **caososa** – chaotic
 +
 +**-al** is added to a noun to form a general adjective meaning "​pertaining to ..." or "to do with ...":
 +
 +  * **fotografia** – photography (~)→(~) **fotografial** – photographic
 +  * **nasion** – nation (~)→(~) **nasional** – national
 +  * **siensa** – science (~)→(~) **siensal** – scientific
 +  * **averbo** – adverb (~)→(~) **averbal** – adverbial
 +  * **erita** – inheritance (~)→(~) **erital** – hereditary
 +  * **mito** – myth (~)→(~) **mital** – mythical
 +  * **monce** – monk (~)→(~) **moncal** – monastic
 +
 +**-iste** is added to a noun denoting a belief, such as a religion or a philosophy, to make a general adjective. If the noun ends in **-isme**, then **-iste** takes its place. In some words where the root is a proper noun, the noun's final vowel is retained if this produces a more international word:
 +
 +  * **bigamia** – bigamy (~)→(~) **bigamiste** – bigamous
 +  * **otimisme** – optimism (~)→(~) **otimiste** – optimist
 +  * **puria** – cleanliness (~)→(~) **puriste** – puristic
 +  * **Mitra** – Mithras (~)→(~) **mitraiste** – Mithraist
 +
 +**-an** is added to a few nouns denoting extents of space or time (places and eras) to form general adjectives:
 +
 +  * **suburbe** – suburb (~)→(~) **suburban** – suburban
 +  * **Victoria** – Victoria (~)→(~) **victorian** – Victorian
 +
 +**-an** is also one of the five standard suffixes for forming adjectives that denote languages and peoples. The other four are **-es**, **-ica**, **-i**, and **-sce**. For these adjectives, Elefen uses words that sound as similar to the native names as possible: as a result, some names use a special suffix of their own, or no suffix at all, and the root is sometimes modified too:
 +
 +  * **Africa** – Africa (~)→(~) **african** – African
 +  * **Frans** – France (~)→(~) **franses** – French
 +  * **Elas** – Greece (~)→(~) **elinica** – Greek
 +  * **Arabia** – Arabia (~)→(~) **arabi** – Arabian
 +  * **Rusia** – Russia (~)→(~) **rusce** – Russian
 +  * **Europa** – Europe (~)→(~) **european** – European
 +  * **Deutxland** – Germany (~)→(~) **deutx** – German
 +  * **Britan** – Britain (~)→(~) **brites** – British
 +
 +But those who prefer it can simply add **-an** to any country name:
 +
 +  * **Frans** – France (~)→(~) **fransan** – French
 +  * **Elas** – Greece (~)→(~) **elas** – Greek
 +  * **Arabia** – Arabia (~)→(~) **arabian** – Arabian
 +  * **Rusia** – Russia (~)→(~) **rusian** – Russian
 +  * **Deutxland** – Germany (~)→(~) **deutxlandan** – German
 +  * **Britan** – Britain (~)→(~) **britanan** – British
 +
 +**-ica** is added to a noun denoting a medical, psychological,​ or similar problem, to form an adjective that describes a person who has the problem:
 +
 +  * **catalesia** – catalepsy (~)→(~) **catalesica** – cataleptic
 +  * **xenofobia** – xenophobia (~)→(~) **xenofobica** – xenophobic
 +
 +**-nte** is added to a verb to create the active participle, an adjective that means "​-ing",​ i.e. "such that it does (the specified action)"​. The active participle of **es** is **esente**:
 +
 +  * **ama** – to love (~)→(~) **amante** – loving
 +  * **depende** – to depend (~)→(~) **dependente** – dependent
 +  * **dormi** – to sleep (~)→(~) **dorminte** – asleep
 +  * **obedi** – to obey (~)→(~) **obedinte** – obedient
 +  * **pare** – to appear / to seem (~)→(~) **parente** – apparent
 +  * **es** – to be (~)→(~) **esente** – being
 +
 +Nouns ending in **-nte** are //not// used as names of actions:
 +
 +  * La **covrente** es sur la caxa. – The lid/​covering is on the box.
 +  * **Covre** la caxa es un bon idea. – Covering the box is a good idea.
 +
 +**-da** is added to a verb to form the passive participle, an adjective that means "​-ed",​ i.e. "such that it has or has had ... done to it":
 +
 +  * **ama** – to love (~)→(~) **amada** – beloved
 +  * **clui** – to close (~)→(~) **cluida** – closed
 +  * **conose** – to know (~)→(~) **conoseda** – known
 +  * **jela** – to freeze (~)→(~) **jelada** – frozen
 +  * **nesesa** – to need (~)→(~) **nesesada** – needed / necessary
 +  * **putri** – to rot (~)→(~) **putrida** – rotten
 +
 +One does //not// use **-da** to indicate the past tense of verbs:
 +
 +  * La caxa es **covreda** par la tela. - at this time, the cloth covers the box.
 +  * La tela **ia covre** la caxa. - in the past, the cloth covered the box.
 +
 +**-able** is added to a verb to make an adjective that means "​-able",​ "​capable of having ... done to it", or "​worthy of having ... done to it":
 +
 +  * **ama** – to love (~)→(~) **amable** – lovable
 +  * **come** – to eat (~)→(~) **comable** – edible
 +  * **infla** – to inflate (~)→(~) **inflable** – inflatable
 +  * **loda** – to praise (~)→(~) **lodable** – praiseworthy
 +  * **nota** – to note (~)→(~) **notable** – notable
 +  * **titila** – to tickle (~)→(~) **titilable** – ticklish
 +
 +===== Suffixes forming nouns =====
 +
 +**-or** means "​-er"​. When added to a verb, it makes a noun meaning a person who performs the specified action, often typically or habitually. When added to a noun, it makes a noun meaning a person who works with the specified thing, or plays the specified sport:
 +
 +  * **aida** – to help (~)→(~) **aidor** – helper
 +  * **deteta** – to detect (~)→(~) **detetor** – detective
 +  * **dirije** – to direct (~)→(~) **dirijor** – director
 +  * **fumi** – to smoke (~)→(~) **fumor** – smoker
 +  * **gania** – to win (~)→(~) **ganior** – winner
 +  * **jogla** – to juggle (~)→(~) **joglor** – juggler
 +  * **parla** – to speak (~)→(~) **parlor** – speaker (person)
 +  * **pexa** – to fish (~)→(~) **pexor** – fisherman
 +  * **carne** – meat (~)→(~) **carnor** – butcher
 +  * **vaso** – pot (~)→(~) **vasor** – potter
 +  * **futbal** – football (~)→(~) **futbalor** – footballer
 +  * **tenis** – tennis (~)→(~) **tenisor** – tennis player
 +
 +**-ador** also means "​-er",​ but creates nouns meaning a tool or machine that performs the specified action, or works on the specified thing:
 +
 +  * **caldi** – heat (~)→(~) **caldador** – heater
 +  * **computa** – compute (~)→(~) **computador** – computer
 +  * **fax** – fax (~)→(~) **faxador** – fax machine
 +  * **lava** – wash (~)→(~) **lavador** – washing machine / dishwasher
 +  * **parla** – speak (~)→(~) **parlador** – loudspeaker
 +  * **surfa** – surf / browse (~)→(~) **surfador** – (web) browser
 +  * **umidi** – dampen (~)→(~) **umidador** – humidifier
 +
 +**-eria** is added to a noun or verb to make a noun meaning a place, often a shop, associated with the specified action or thing:
 +
 +  * **cafe** – coffee (~)→(~) **caferia** – cafe
 +  * **pan** – bread (~)→(~) **paneria** – bakery, baker'​s shop
 +  * **beli** – beautify (~)→(~) **beleria** – beauty salon
 +  * **campana** – bell (~)→(~) **campaneria** – bell tower
 +  * **fruto** – fruit (~)→(~) **fruteria** – orchard
 +  * **monce** – monk (~)→(~) **monceria** – monastery
 +  * **planeta** – planet (~)→(~) **planeteria** – planetarium
 +  * **xef** – chief / leader (~)→(~) **xeferia** – headquarters
 +
 +**-ia** is equivalent to "​-ness"​ or "​-ity"​ or "​-ship"​ or "​-hood"​ in English. It forms abstract nouns that serve as the names of qualities. When **-ia** is added to a word that ends in **-ia**, the word doesn'​t change:
 +
 +  * **ajil** – agile (~)→(~) **ajilia** – agility
 +  * **felis** – happy (~)→(~) **felisia** – happiness
 +  * **jelosa** – jealous (~)→(~) **jelosia** – jealousy
 +  * **neutra** – neutral (~)→(~) **neutria** – neutrality
 +  * **madre** – mother (~)→(~) **madria** – motherhood
 +  * **enfante** – child (~)→(~) **enfantia** – childhood
 +  * **sultan** – sultan (~)→(~) **sultania** – sultanate
 +  * **fria** – cold (~)→(~) **fria** – coldness
 +  * **vea** – old / old person (~)→(~) **veia** – old age
 +
 +Words like **enfantia** and **sultania** can denote a time or place in which the quality exists.
 +
 +The names of many fields of study also end in **ia** (or **ica**) but this is part of the root, and not a suffix. The names of the corresponding practitioners are formed with **-iste**. **-iste** is also used to form the names of believers in a religion or philosophy (as derived from [[#​suffixes_forming_adjectives|the adjectival suffix **-iste**]]),​ the names of musicians, and the names of certain other people that end in "​-ist-"​ internationally:​
 +
 +  * **jeografia** – geography (~)→(~) **jeografiste** – geographer
 +  * **psicolojia** – psychology (~)→(~) **psicolojiste** – psychologist
 +  * **cimica** – chemistry (~)→(~) **cimiciste** – chemist
 +  * **eletrica** – electricity (~)→(~) **eletriciste** – electrician
 +  * **musica** – music (~)→(~) **musiciste** – musician
 +  * **Crixna** – Krishna (~)→(~) **crixnaiste** – Krishnaist
 +  * **ideal** – ideal (~)→(~) **idealiste** – idealist(ic)
 +  * **gitar** – guitar (~)→(~) **gitariste** – guitarist
 +  * **solo** – solo (~)→(~) **soliste** – soloist
 +  * **jornal** – journal (~)→(~) **jornaliste** – journalist
 +  * **sicle** – cycle (~)→(~) **sicliste** – cyclist
 +
 +**-isme** forms the names of belief systems, replacing **-iste** in the name of the believer. It also occurs in certain other words that end in "​-ism-"​ internationally:​
 +
 +  * **dauiste** – Taoist (~)→(~) **dauisme** – Taoism
 +  * **altruiste** – altruist(ic) (~)→(~) **altruisme** – altruism
 +  * **raziste** – racist (~)→(~) **razisme** – racism
 +  * **sindicatiste** – syndicalist (~)→(~) **sindicatisme** – syndicalism
 +  * **turiste** – tourist (~)→(~) **turisme** – tourism
 +  * **simbol** – symbol (~)→(~) **simbolisme** – symbolism
 +  * **canibal** – cannibal (~)→(~) **canibalisme** – cannibalism
 +
 +===== Less productive suffixes =====
 +
 +The following suffixes are only applied to specific words, as defined in the dictionary.
 +
 +**-eta** is added to certain nouns to create a name for a version of something that has been reduced in a particular way. This includes the names of young animals and inner garments. **-eta** can similarly be added to a few verbs and adjectives to create words for reduced versions of actions and qualities:
 +
 +  * **bebe** – baby (~)→(~) **bebeta** – newborn baby
 +  * **caro** – cart (~)→(~) **careta** – wheelbarrow
 +  * **imaje** – image (~)→(~) **imajeta** – thumbnail
 +  * **lente** – lens (~)→(~) **lenteta** – contact lens
 +  * **mone** – money (~)→(~) **moneta** – coin
 +  * **orolojo** – clock (~)→(~) **orolojeta** – watch
 +  * **bove** – cow / ox (~)→(~) **boveta** – calf
 +  * **ovea** – sheep (~)→(~) **oveta** – lamb
 +  * **calsa** – stocking (~)→(~) **calseta** – sock
 +  * **camisa** – shirt (~)→(~) **camiseta** – undershirt / T-shirt
 +  * **jaca** – jacket (~)→(~) **jaceta** – vest //(US)// / waistcoat //(Br)//
 +  * **pluve** – to rain (~)→(~) **pluveta** – to drizzle
 +  * **rie** – to laugh (~)→(~) **rieta** – to giggle
 +  * **parla** – to speak (~)→(~) **parleta** – to chat
 +  * **bela** – beautiful (~)→(~) **beleta** – pretty, cute
 +
 +**-on** is added to certain nouns to create a name for a version of something that has been augmented in a particular way. This includes the names of outer garments:
 +
 +  * **abea** – bee (~)→(~) **abeon** – bumblebee
 +  * **caxa** – box (~)→(~) **caxon** – crate
 +  * **dente** – tooth (~)→(~) **denton** – fang / tusk
 +  * **dito** – finger (~)→(~) **diton** – thumb
 +  * **padre** – father (~)→(~) **padron** – patriarch / boss
 +  * **sala** – room (~)→(~) **salon** – living room
 +  * **seja** – chair (~)→(~) **sejon** – armchair
 +  * **calsa** – stocking (~)→(~) **calson** – tights / pantyhose
 +  * **jaca** – jacket (~)→(~) **jacon** – overcoat
 +
 +**-eta** and **-on** are not synonyms for **peti** and **grande**: it's quite possible to have **un careta grande** or **un salon peti**. Instead, they form words with specific new meanings that can be loosely described as being smaller or larger versions of the original.
 +
 +**-o** and **-a** are added to a few [[nouns#​gender|nouns that denote members of the family]], to switch the meaning between male and female respectively:​
 +
 +  * **tio**, **tia** – uncle, aunt
 +
 +The names of some trees are formed by changing the final **-a** of the name of the fruit or nut to **-o**:
 +
 +  * **pera** – pear (~)→(~) **pero** – pear tree
 +
 +**-esa** is added to a few [[nouns#​gender|nouns denoting historical male social roles]] to form the female equivalent:
 +
 +  * **prinse** – prince (~)→(~) **prinsesa** – princess
 +
 +===== Technical affixes =====
 +
 +International scientific and medical terms are formed from Latin and Greek sources by means of a large number of technical prefixes and suffixes. These affixes are used in Elefen too, and follow Elefen'​s [[vp>​Transcrive|rules of transcription]].
 +
 +The suffixes **-i** and **-uple** are used to name [[numbers#​fractions|fractions]] and [[numbers#​multiples|multiples]].
 +
 +===== Compound nouns =====
 +
 +A compound noun can be formed by combining a verb with its object, in that order. The result means a person or thing that performs the specified action on the specified object:
 +
 + 
 +  * **corti**, **ungia** – shorten, nail (~)→(~) **cortiungia** – nail clipper
 +  * **covre**, **table** – cover, table (~)→(~) **covretable** – tablecloth
 +  * **fura**, **bolsa** – steal, handbag (~)→(~) **furabolsa** – pickpocket
 +  * **lansa**, **petra** – throw, stone (~)→(~) **lansapetra** – catapult
 +  * **para**, **morde** – stop, bite (~)→(~) **paramorde** – muzzle
 +  * **para**, **pluve** – stop, rain (~)→(~) **parapluve** – umbrella
 +  * **pasa**, **tempo** – pass, time (~)→(~) **pasatempo** – pastime
 +  * **porta**, **mone** – carry, money (~)→(~) **portamone** – wallet
 +  * **porta**, **vose** – carry, voice (~)→(~) **portavose** – spokesperson
 +  * **brinca**, **dorso** – hop, back (~)→(~) **brincadorso** – leapfrog //(the game, named after its players)//
 +
 +If the object begins with a vowel, this is retained unless it's the same as the final vowel of the verb, as in **portavion**.
 +
 +Elefen does not allow two consecutive nouns to form a compound. Instead, a preposition has to be placed between the two nouns. For example:
 +
 +  * avia **de** mar – seabird
 +  * casa **per** avias – birdhouse
 +  * xef **de** polisia – chief of police
 +
 +In rare cases, such an expression has a special non-literal meaning and is treated as if it was a single fixed word. For example, a **leon-de-mar** (sea lion) is not a lion. In such cases, the words are joined with hyphens, and any adjectives follow the second noun. Hyphens can also be used for more literal compounds when this improves clarity:
 +
 +  * un **leon-de-mar** grande – a large sea lion
 +  * un **leon** grande **de mar** – a large lion from the sea
 +  * un **avion** grande **de mar** – a large seaplane //(because a seaplane is a type of airplane)//
 +  * un **avion-de-mar** grande – a large seaplane //​(alternative)//​
 +  * un **avion de mar** grande – a large seaplane //​(ambiguous,​ because it seems to be saying that the sea is large)//
  
gramatica/en/word_formation.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:48 par Simon