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gramatica:en:verbs

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gramatica:en:verbs [2019/08/10 11:46]
Simon
gramatica:en:verbs [2019/11/30 14:59] (corente)
Simon
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 +====== Verbs ======
 +
 +A typical verb denotes the occurrence or abandonment of an action (run, stop), a relationship (have, lose), or a state (stand, melt). In Elefen, verbs do not change to indicate such things as tense or mood. Instead, adverbs are used – especially the three preverbs **ia**, **va**, and **ta**. Any verb can be [[#​verbs_as_nouns|reused without change]] as a [[nouns|noun]].
 +
 +===== Tense =====
 +
 +The future tense is marked with **va** (a word of [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​French_language|French]] origin). Past tenses, including perfect and pluperfect, are marked with **ia** (of [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Chavacano_language|Chavacano]] origin). These are special adverbs that //precede// the verb. The present tense is unmarked:
 +
 +  * Me **canta**. – I sing / I am singing.
 +  * Me **va canta**. – I will sing / I am about to sing.
 +  * Me **ia canta**. – I sang / I was singing / I have sung / I had sung.
 +
 +Stories often describe events that take place in the past (or an imagined past), or whose location in time is of no concern to the reader. In such cases, the **ia** may be omitted.
 +
 +Elefen does not distinguish perfect and imperfect aspects of the verb (e.g. "I ate", "I used to eat", "I have eaten",​ "I had eaten"​). However, one can easily clarify the temporal sequence of two actions by marking the earlier one with **ja** ("​already"​):​
 +
 +  * Cuando tu ia encontra nos, nos **ia come ja**. – When you met us, we had (already) eaten.
 +  * Si tu reveni doman, me **va fini ja** la labora. – If you come back tomorrow, I will have (already) finished the work.
 +  * Sempre cuando me ateni la fini de un capitol, me **oblida ja** la titulo. – Whenever I reach the end of a chapter, I've (already) forgotten the title.
 +
 +There are other ways to clarify the temporal sequence:
 +
 +  * Me ia come **ante aora**. – I ate before now.
 +  * Me ia come **plu temprana**. – I ate earlier.
 +  * Me ia **fini** come. – I finished eating.
 +  * Me va come **pronto**. – I will eat soon.
 +  * Me **comensa** come. – I start to eat.
 +  * Me va come **pos acel**. – I will eat after that.
 +  * Me va come **plu tarda**. – I will eat later.
 +  * Me ia **abitua** come en la note. – I used to eat during the night.
 +  * Me ia come **abitual** en la note. – I used to eat during the night.
 +
 +Elefen has an optional "​irrealis"​ particle **ta** (of [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Haitian_Creole_language|Haitian]] origin) that can be used to indicate that something is unreal, or in doubt, or merely possible or desired. A sentence with **ta** addresses an alternative reality. In sentences using **si** ("​if"​),​ **ta** is added in the main clause, but it is usually omitted in the "​if"​ clause – although including it there is not prohibited. It can suggest a future that is less probable than one using **va**. **Ta** can also convey a polite request. It can be used in various situations where many languages would use subjunctive or conditional moods, and it often corresponds to the English word "​would":​
 +
 +  * Si me **ta rena** la mundo, cada dia ta es la dia prima de primavera. – If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of spring.
 +  * Si lo no esiste, on **ta debe** inventa lo. – If it didn't exist, you'd have to invent it.
 +  * Si tu canta, me va escuta. – If you sing, I will listen.
 +  * Si tu va canta, me va escuta. – If you will sing, I will listen.
 +  * Si tu canta, me **ta escuta**. – If you sing, I would listen.
 +  * Si tu **ta canta**, me **ta escuta**. – If you were to sing, I would listen.
 +  * Me duta ce tu **ta dise** acel. – I doubt you would say that.
 +  * Tu **ta dona** la sal, per favore? – Would you pass the salt, please?
 +
 +Normally, only one of **va**, **ia**, and **ta** can be used with each verb. An exception is **ia ta**, which has the same meaning as the past conditional in the Romance languages and "would have" in English. An example is an amusing comment by Richard Nixon:
 +
 +  * Me **ia ta** es un bon pape. – I would have made a good pope.
 +
 +Unlike in English, reported speech in Elefen retains the tense of the original utterance:
 +
 +  * El ia dise ce la sala **es** fria. = El ia dise: "Oji, la sala **es** fria." – He said the room was cold. = He said: "The room is cold today."​
 +  * El ia demanda esce la sala **es** fria. = El ia demanda: "Esce la sala **es** fria?" – He asked if the room was cold. = He asked: "Is the room cold?"
 +  * El ia pensa ce la sala **ia es** fria. = El ia pensa: "Ier, la sala **ia es** fria." – He thought the room had been cold. = He thought: "The room was cold yesterday."​
 +
 +===== Imperative =====
 +
 +The imperative, or command form of the verb, is unmarked. It differs from the present tense in that the subject is omitted. The subject would normally be **tu** or **vos**, i.e. the person addressed. **Ta** or **ta ce** can be used if a subject has to be included:
 +
 +  * **Para**! – Stop!
 +  * **Pardona** me. – Excuse me / Sorry.
 +  * **Toca** la tecla de spasio per continua. – Press the spacebar to continue.
 +  * **Vade** a via, per favore! – Please go away!
 +  * Ta ce tua rena **veni**! – May thy kingdom come!, would that thy kingdom come!
 +  * Ta ce nos **dansa**! – Let's dance!
 +
 +===== Negation =====
 +
 +Verbs are negated with the adverb **no**, which //​precedes//​ both the verb and **va**, **ia**, or **ta**:
 +
 +  * Me **no labora** oji, e me **no va labora** doman. – I'm not working today, and I won't be working tomorrow.
 +  * El **no ia pensa** ce algun es asi. – He didn't think anyone was here.
 +  * **No traversa** la strada sin regarda. – Don't cross the street without looking.
 +
 +===== Participles =====
 +
 +A **participle** is a verb used as an adjective or adverb. Verbs form active participles in **-nte**, and passive participles in **-da**. These are [[adjectives|adjectives]] equivalent to those in "​-ing"​ and "​-ed"​ (or "​-en"​) in English, and can be used equally well as [[adverbs|adverbs]] and [[nouns|nouns]]. The active participle normally also implies an ongoing action, while the passive participle suggests that the action occurred in the past:
 +
 +  * Un ruido **asustante** ia veni de la armario. – A frightening noise came from the cupboard. //​(adjective)//​
 +  * La om **creante** scultas es amirable. – The man creating sculptures is admirable. //​(adjective;​ = la om ci crea scultas)//
 +  * El ia sta **tremante** en la porta. – She stood shivering in the doorway. //​(adverb)//​
 +  * Nos ia colie tota de la **composantes**. – We have collected all of the components. //(noun)//
 +  * Per favore, no senta sur la seja **rompeda**. – Please do not sit on the broken chair. //​(adjective)//​
 +  * El ia cade **embarasada** tra la seja. – He fell, embarrassed,​ through the chair. //​(adverb)//​
 +  * Sua novela va es un **bonvendeda**. – Her novel will be a bestseller. //(noun)//
 +
 +The active participle can have an object. Furthermore,​ it can be used as a complement of the verb **es** to convey a progressive sense:
 +
 +  * Me **es** lenta **asorbente** la informa. – I am slowly absorbing the information.
 +  * Me no ia disturba tu, car tu **ia es laborante**. – I didn't disturb you, as you were working.
 +
 +But a participial construction is often unnecessary,​ as there are others ways to express this meaning:
 +
 +  * Me **asorbe lenta** la informa. – I slowly absorb / am slowly absorbing the information.
 +  * Vade a via, me **labora**. – Go away, I'm working.
 +  * Me **continua** come. – I continue to eat.
 +  * Me come **continual**. – I eat continually.
 +  * Me come **tra la dia intera**. – I eat throughout the day.
 +
 +The passive participle can be used as a complement of the verbs **es** or **deveni**, producing a passive sense. **Par** ("​by"​) introduces the agent of a passive action:
 +  * Esta sala **ia es pintida** par un bufon. – This room was painted by a clown.
 +  * La sala **deveni pintida**. – The room is being painted.
 +  * Acel ponte **ia es desiniada par** un injenior famosa. – That bridge was designed by a famous engineer.
 +  * Lo **ia deveni conoseda** ce el ia es un om perilosa. – It became known that he was a dangerous man.
 +
 +An active sentence with **on** or **algun** as its subject is often an elegant alternative to a passive sentence:
 +
 +  * **On** pinti la sala. – The room is being painted.
 +  * **On** no conose cuanto persones teme aranias. – It's not known how many people are afraid of spiders.
 +  * **Algun** ia come lo. – It was eaten by someone.
 +
 +The active participle of **es** is **esente**:
 +
 +  * **Esente** un bufon, el ia senta sur la seja rompeda. – Being a clown, he sat on the broken chair.
 +
 +===== Transitivity =====
 +
 +A **transitive verb** is one that can be directly followed by a [[nouns#​noun_phrases|noun phrase]] (an **object**),​ with no intervening [[prepositions|preposition]]. An **intransitive verb** does not have an object. For example:
 +
 +  * Me **senta**. – I am sitting. //​(**senta** is intransitive)//​
 +  * La patatas **coce**. – The potatoes are cooking. //(**coce** is intransitive)//​
 +  * El **usa** un computador. – She's using a computer. //(**usa** is transitive)//​
 +  * Los **come** bananas. – They'​re eating bananas. //(**come** is transitive)//​
 +
 +Transitivity is flexible in Elefen. For example, if you add an object after an intransitive verb, the verb becomes transitive. The object corresponds semantically to the intransitive subject, and the verb now means "​causes (the object) to ...":
 +
 +  * Me **senta** la enfantes. – I seat the children. //(= Me causa ce la enfantes senta)//
 +  * Me **coce** la patatas. – I cook the potatoes. //(= Me causa ce la patatas coce)//
 +
 +The object of a transitive verb can be omitted if it's obvious from the situation or the context:
 +
 +  * El **canta** un melodia. – She's singing a tune. > El **canta**. – She's singing. //(= El canta alga cosa)//
 +
 +When a verb's object and subject are the same thing, you can use a reflexive pronoun as the object:
 +
 +  * Me **senta me**. – I seat myself / I sit down. //(= Me deveni sentante)//
 +  * La porte **abri se**. – The door opens (itself). //(= La porte abri – but emphasizing that nobody seems to be opening it; it's opening by itself)//
 +
 +And to make it clear that a verb is being used transitively,​ you can use expressions with **fa** or **causa**:
 +
 +  * Me **fa** ce la enfantes senta. – I make the children sit. //(= Me senta la enfantes)//
 +  * Me **causa** ce la fango adere a mea botas. – I cause the mud to stick to my boots. //(= Me adere la fango a me botas)//
 +
 +In some languages, the object of a transitive verb can have a complement. Elefen uses other constructions instead:
 +
 +  * Los ia eleje el **a** presidente. – They elected him president. //​(preposition of resulting state)//
 +  * Me ia pinti la casa **a** blanca. – I painted the house white. //​(preposition of resulting state)//
 +  * Me ia fa ce el **es** felis. – I made him happy. //(noun clause)//
 +  * El ia dise **ce** me es stupida. – He called me stupid. //(noun clause)//
 +
 +The one exception involves the verb **nomi**, and is regarded as an example of [[nouns#​apposition|apposition]]:​
 +
 +  * La esplorores ia nomi la rio **la Amazon**. – The explorers named the river the Amazon. //(= **los ia dona la nom "la Amazon"​ a la rio**)//
 +
 +===== Verbs with dummy subjects =====
 +
 +Every finite verb in Elefen must have a subject, even if only as a placekeeper.
 +
 +In some languages, it's possible to omit the subjects of verbs that refer to the weather or the general environment. In Elefen, **lo** ("​it"​) is used:
 +
 +  * **Lo neva**. – It's snowing.
 +  * **Lo va pluve**. – It's going to rain.
 +  * **Lo es** tro calda en esta sala. – It's too hot in this room.
 +  * **Lo es** bon – It's good.
 +
 +Another example is when the subject is effectively a trailing [[clauses#​noun_clauses|noun clause]]. Because it comes after the verb, **lo** is used as a dummy subject:
 +
 +  * **Lo pare** ce tu es coreta. – It seems that you are correct.
 +  * **Lo es** importante ce me no oblida esta. – It's important that I don't forget this.
 +
 +Likewise, with the verb **es**, if the subject is a pronoun (typically **el**, **lo**, or **los**) followed by a [[clauses#​relative_clauses|relative clause]], the real subject can be moved to the end of the sentence and substitute **lo** as a dummy subject:
 +
 +  * **Lo es** me **ci** ama Maria. = **El ci** ama Maria **es** me. – It's me who loves Mary. = The one who loves Mary is me.
 +  * **Lo es** Maria **ci** me ama. = **El ci** me ama **es** Maria. – It's Mary that I love. = The one that I love is Mary.
 +  * **Lo es** la bal blu **cual** me ia perde. = **Lo cual** me ia perde **es** la bal blu. = La bal blu **es lo cual** me ia perde. – It's the blue ball that I've lost = What I've lost is the blue ball. = The blue ball is what I've lost.
 +
 +**On ave** indicates the presence or existence of something:
 +
 +  * **On ave** un serpente en la rua. – There is a snake in the road.
 +  * **On no ave** pexes en esta lago. – There aren't any fish in this lake.
 +  * **On ave** multe persones asi oji. – There are many people here today.
 +
 +===== Verbs as nouns =====
 +
 +Elefen has two ways to use verbs as nouns: the **infinitive** and the **verbal noun**. Both use the verb unmodified. The infinitive does not accept a subject or an indicator of tense or mood, but it can accept adverbs and an object. It usually follows another verb or a preposition. The verbal noun is a real noun, and is preceded by **la** or another determiner. It can accept adjectives, but a preposition (most commonly **de**) must be used if an object needs to be included.
 +
 +One use of the infinitive is as the object of another verb. In Elefen, this forms what is known as a **verb chain**. The subject of the first verb must be the subject of the second as well, and the object is placed after the second verb. The first verb can be followed by adverbs that modify it, as well as by **no** to negate the second verb:
 +
 +  * Me **espera ariva** ante tua parti. – I hope to arrive before you leave.
 +  * Me **ia gusta** multe **escuta** oji mea musica. – I greatly enjoyed listening to my music today.
 +  * On **pote** nunca **spele** coreta mea nom. – People can never spell my name correctly.
 +  * El **teme** no **velia** en la matina. – He fears not waking up in the morning.
 +
 +In addition to serving as the object of the main verb, a verb can also appear after a [[prepositions|preposition]]. Such a verb can still take **no** before it and adverbs after it:
 +
 +  * Me viaja **per vide** la mundo. – I'm travelling (in order) to see the world.
 +  * El ia mori **pos nomi** sua susedor. – She died after naming her successor.
 +  * El ia abri la noza **par colpa** lo forte con un martel. – He opened the nut by hitting it hard with a hammer.
 +  * On no pote pasea tra la mundo **sin lasa** impresas de pede. – You can't walk through the world without leaving footprints.
 +
 +A verbal noun also has the same form as the verb, but it must be introduced by **la** or another determiner, or be plural. The noun denotes either an occurrence of the verb's action, or its immediate result:
 +
 +  * **Sua condui** ia es vera xocante. – His behaviour was really shocking.
 +  * La valsa e la samba es **dansas**. – The waltz and the samba are dances.
 +  * Esta va es **un ajunta** bela a la ragu. – This will be a fine addition to the stew.
 +  * Me ia prepara **du traduis** de la testo. – I've prepared two translations of the text.
 +  * "​LFN"​ es **un corti** de "​Lingua Franca Nova". – "​LFN"​ is an abbreviation of "​Lingua Franca Nova".
 +  * La universo ia es estrema peti a la momento de **sua crea**. – The universe was extremely small at the moment of its creation.
 +
 +With a verb such as **ajunta**, there is little difference between **un ajunta** and **un ajuntada**. But **la traduida** is the original text from which **la tradui** is produced, and **un crea** is an act of creating **un creada**. This follows from the meaning of the objects of the verbs themselves: **-da** always refers to the object. With **crea**, the object is also the result of the action; but with **tradui**, the object and the result are two different things. With a few verbs, such as **dansa**, where the object and the action are the same thing, we say **un dansa**, not **un dansada**.
 +
 +A verb used as the subject of a sentence can be confused with a command. One can avoid this by changing the verb to a verbal noun by adding **la** or another determiner before the verb, or by using the plural:
 +
 +  * **La nada** es un bon eserse. – Swimming is good exercise / To swim is good exercise.
 +  * **La scrive de un bon libro** es multe difisil. – Writing a good book is very difficult / To write a good book is very difficult.
 +  * **La era es umana, la pardona es divin.** – To err is human, to forgive is divine.
  
gramatica/en/verbs.txt · Editada: 2019/11/30 14:59 par Simon