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gramatica:en:spelling_and_pronunciation

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gramatica:en:spelling_and_pronunciation [2019/07/15 15:31]
Simon
gramatica:en:spelling_and_pronunciation [2019/08/10 11:44] (corente)
Simon
Linia 1: Linia 1:
 +{{page>​naviga}}
 +
 +====== Spelling and pronunciation ======
 +
 +===== Alphabets =====
 +
 +Elefen uses the two most widely known alphabets in the world: Roman (or Latin) and Cyrillic.
 +
 +  * Roman (lowercase)
 +    * **a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p r s t u v x z**
 +  * Roman (capitals)
 +    * **A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P R S T U V X Z**
 +  * Cyrillic (lowercase)
 +    * **а б к д е ф г х и ж л м н о п р с т у в ш з**
 +  * Cyrillic (capitals)
 +    * **А Б К Д Е Ф Г Х И Ж Л М Н О П Р С Т У В Ш З**
 +
 +K, Q, W, and Y do not appear in ordinary words. They are only used to [[vp>​Transcrive|preserve the original forms]] of proper nouns and non-Elefen words. The same applies to various additional letters of the Cyrillic alphabet.
 +
 +H is also not common, but it is found in some technical and cultural terms.
 +
 +===== Capital letters =====
 +
 +A capital letter is used at the start of the first word in a sentence.
 +
 +Capital letters are also used at the start of proper nouns. When a proper noun consists of several words, each word is capitalized – apart from minor words like **la** and **de**:
 +
 +  * People, real or imagined, as well as personified animals and things
 +    * **Maria**, **San Paulo**, **Barack Obama**, **Jan de Hartog**, **Seniora Braun**, **Oscar de la Renta**, **Mickey Mouse**
 +  * Organizations (e.g. companies, societies)
 +    * **Ikea**, **Nasiones Unida**, **Organiza Mundal de Sania**
 +  * Political entities (e.g. nations, states, cities)
 +    * **Frans**, **Atina**, **Site de New York**, **Statos Unida de America**
 +  * Geographical locations (e.g. rivers, oceans, lakes, mountains)
 +    * **la Alpes**, **Rio Amazon**, **Mar Atlantica**
 +  * Letters of the alphabet
 +    * **E**, **N**
 +
 +But with titles of works of art and literature, only the first word of the title is capitalized (along with any proper nouns that appear):
 +
 +  * **Un sonia de un note de mediaestate** – //A Midsummer Night'​s Dream//
 +  * **La frates Karamazov** – //The Brothers Karamazov//
 +  * **Tocata e fuga en D minor** – //Toccata and Fugue in D Minor//
 +
 +Sometimes, as in warnings, capitals are used to EMPHASIZE entire words or phrases.
 +
 +Elefen uses small letters in places where some languages use capitals:
 +
 +  * Days of the week
 +    * **lundi**, **jovedi** – Monday, Thursday
 +  * Months
 +    * **marto**, **novembre** – March, November
 +  * Holidays and similar occasions
 +    * **natal**, **ramadan**,​ **pascua** – Christmas, Ramadan, Easter
 +  * Centuries
 +    * **la sentenio dudes-un** – the twentieth century
 +  * Languages and peoples
 +    * **catalan**,​ **xines** – Catalan, Chinese
 +  * Abbreviations
 +    * **lfn**, **pf**
 +
 +===== Letter names =====
 +
 +The following syllables are used to name letters in speech, e.g. when spelling a word:
 +
 +  * **a be ce de e ef ge hax i je ka el em en o pe qua er es te u ve wa ex ya ze**
 +
 +These are nouns and can be pluralized: **as**, **bes**, **efes**.
 +
 +In writing, one can simply present the letter itself, capitalized,​ adding **-s** for the plural:
 +
 +  * **La parola "​matematica"​ ave tre As, du Ms** (pronounced **emes**)**,​ e un E.** – The word "​matematica"​ has three As, two Ms, and an E.
 +
 +===== Vowels =====
 +
 +<WRAP box centeralign>​
 +[[http://​ccgi.esperanto.plus.com/​lfn/​vocales.mp3|Listen and repeat]] (MP3).
 +</​WRAP>​
 +
 +The letters A, E, I, O, and U are pronounced as in Spanish:
 +
 +| **A** | [a] | as in Spanish or French "​papa";​ similar to the vowel in "​palm"​ | open front unrounded | **ambasada** |
 +| **E** | [e] | as in Spanish "​peso"​ or French "​été";​ similar to the vowels in "​get"​ or "​gate"​ | mid front unrounded | **estende** |
 +| **I** | [i] | the vowel in "​feet"​ | close front unrounded | **ibridi** |
 +| **O** | [o] | as in Spanish "​poso"​ or French "​beau";​ similar to the vowels in "​caught"​ or "​coat"​ | mid back rounded | **odorosa** |
 +| **U** | [u] | the vowel in "​moon"​ | close back rounded | **cultur** |
 +
 +The vowel sounds allow a degree of variation. For example, A can be pronounced as [ɑ] (as in "​car"​),​ E as [ɛ] ("​get"​) or [ei] ("​gate"​),​ and O as [ɔ] ("​caught"​) or [ou] ("​coat"​) without causing misunderstanding.
 +
 +===== Diphthongs =====
 +
 +<WRAP box centeralign>​
 +[[http://​ccgi.esperanto.plus.com/​lfn/​ditongos.mp3|Listen and repeat]] (MP3).
 +</​WRAP>​
 +
 +When one vowel follows another, they are normally pronounced separately.
 +
 +But when the second vowel is I or U, the two vowels form a diphthong:
 +
 +| **AI** | [aj] | the sound in "​aisle"​ | **pais** |
 +| **AU** | [aw] | the sound in "​mouth"​ | **auto** |
 +| **EU** | [ew] | no corresponding English diphthong; similar to the "ay w" in "bay watch" | **euro** |
 +| **OI** | [oj] | similar to the sound in "​coin"​ | **seluloide** |
 +
 +Adding a prefix does not create a diphthong: **reuni** [re-uni], **supraindise** [supra-indise]. For similar reasons, two separate syllables are normal in a few other words too: **egoiste** [ego-iste], **proibi** [pro-ibi]. Such words are indicated in the dictionary, e.g. "​proibi (o-i)"​.
 +
 +The sequence EI is rare. It is normally pronounced as two separate vowels: **ateiste** [ate-iste], **feida** [fe-ida], **reinventa** [re-inventa]. But speakers who find this pronunciation difficult can say [ej] or even [e] instead.
 +
 +When I or U precedes another vowel, it is reduced to a semivowel – like the English Y or W – in the following cases:
 +
 +  * At the start of a word
 +    * **ioga** [joga], **ueste** [weste]
 +  * Between two other vowels
 +    * **joia** [ʒoja], **ciui** [kiwi], **veia** [veja]
 +  * LI, NI between two other vowels
 +    * **folia** [folja], **anio** [anjo] – but not in the first syllable of a word
 +  * CU, GU before a vowel
 +    * **acua** [akwa], **cual** [kwal], **sangue** [sangwe]
 +
 +In other cases – e.g. **emosia**, **abitual**,​ **plia** – the I or U remains a full vowel.
 +
 +While these rules define the normal pronunciation for diphthongs, they can be ignored without confusion.
 +
 +===== Consonants =====
 +
 +<WRAP box centeralign>​
 +[[http://​ccgi.esperanto.plus.com/​lfn/​consonantes.mp3|Listen and repeat]] (MP3).
 +</​WRAP>​
 +
 +The following letters are consonants:
 +
 +| **B** | [b] | as in "​big"​ | voiced bilabial plosive | **bebe** |
 +| **C** | [k] | as in "​cat"​ | voiceless velar plosive | **clica** |
 +| **D** | [d] | as in "​dog"​ | voiced dental/​alveolar plosive | **donada** |
 +| **F** | [f] | as in "​fat"​ | voiceless labiodental fricative | **fotografi** |
 +| **G** | [g] | as in "​get"​ | voiced velar plosive | **garga** |
 +| **H** | [h] | as in "​hot",​ or silent | voiceless glottal fricative | **haicu** |
 +| **J** | [ʒ] | as in "​treasure"​ | voiced postalveolar fricative | **jeolojia** |
 +| **L** | [l] | as in "​let"​ | voiced dental/​alveolar lateral approximant | **lingual** |
 +| **M** | [m] | as in "​man"​ | voiced bilabial nasal | **mesma** |
 +| **N** | [n] | as in "​not"​ | voiced dental/​alveolar nasal | **negante** |
 +| **P** | [p] | as in "​pot"​ | voiceless bilabial plosive | **paper** |
 +| **R** | [r] | as in "​roll"​ | voiced dental/​alveolar trill | **rubarbo** |
 +| **S** | [s] | as in "​set"​ | voiceless dental/​alveolar fricative | **sistemes** |
 +| **T** | [t] | as in "​ten"​ | voiceless dental/​alveolar plosive | **tota** |
 +| **V** | [v] | as in "​vat"​ | voiced labiodental fricative | **vivosa** |
 +| **X** | [ʃ] | as in "​shop"​ | voiceless postalveolar fricative | **xuxa** |
 +| **Z** | [z] | as in "​zoo"​ | voiced dental/​alveolar fricative | **zezea** |
 +
 +Note the following points:
 +
 +  * **C** is always as in "​call",​ never as in "​cell"​.
 +  * **F** is always as in "​off",​ never as in "​of"​.
 +  * **G** is always as in "​get",​ never as in "​gem"​.
 +  * **J** has the sound that it has in French and Portuguese: like the S in "​treasure"​.
 +  * **N** before G or C has the sound of NG [ŋ] in English: **longa**, **ance**. Final NG, as in **bumerang**,​ also has this sound: the G is silent.
 +  * **R** has the trilled or rolled sound that it has in Italian and Spanish.
 +  * **S** is always as in "​hiss",​ never as in "​his"​.
 +  * **V** never sounds like B, unlike in Spanish.
 +  * **X** is like SH in English, SCH in German, and CH in French and Portuguese.
 +  * **Z** is always as in "​zoo"​.
 +
 +As some speakers have difficulty with consonants in certain combinations or positions, Elefen allows the following variations:
 +
 +  * **J**
 +    * J can also be pronounced [dʒ] like the J in "​judge"​ if preferred.
 +  * **R**
 +    * Other R sounds (as in French, German, or English) are acceptable, as long as they are clearly distinct from other Elefen sounds.
 +  * **X**
 +    * X can also be pronounced [tʃ] like the CH in "​church"​ if preferred.
 +  * **Z**
 +    * Z can also be pronounced [ts] like the ZZ in "​pizza"​ if preferred.
 +  * **haicu**, **bahamas**
 +    * H can be left silent, if a speaker prefers: [aicu], [ba-amas].
 +  * **blog**, **club**
 +    * Some international words end in unusual consonants. A trailing E can be added to ease the pronunciation:​ [bloge], [klube].
 +  * **spada**, **strada**
 +    * A number of words start with S followed by a consonant. A speaker who finds this difficult can add a leading E: [espada], [estrada].
 +  * **gnostica**,​ **psicolojia**
 +    * Some scientific words start with unusual combinations of consonants, such as FT, GN, MN, PS, or PT. The first consonant can be omitted in pronunciation:​ [nostika], [sikoloʒia].
 +
 +===== Non-Elefen letters =====
 +
 +When the non-Elefen letters appear in a word, they are normally pronounced as follows:
 +
 +| **K** | [k]        | like C   |
 +| **Q** | [k]        | like C   |
 +| **W** | [u] or [w] | like U   |
 +| **Y** | [i] or [j] | like I   |
 +| **Ё** | [jo]       | like IO  |
 +| **Й** | [i] or [j] | like I   |
 +| **Ц** | [ts]       | like TS  |
 +| **Ч** | [tʃ]       | like TX  |
 +| **Щ** | [ʃtʃ] ​     | like XTX |
 +| **Ы** | [i]        | like I   |
 +| **Э** | [e]        | like E   |
 +| **Ю** | [ju]       | like IU  |
 +| **Я** | [ja]       | like IA  |
 +
 +===== Stress =====
 +
 +<WRAP box centeralign>​
 +[[http://​ccgi.esperanto.plus.com/​lfn/​asentua.mp3|Listen and repeat]] (MP3).
 +</​WRAP>​
 +
 +If a word has more than one vowel, one of the vowels is stressed (pronounced more strongly). The stressed vowels below are __underlined__.
 +
 +The basic rule is to stress the vowel that precedes the last consonant of a word:
 +
 +  * **f__a__lda**
 +  * **int__e__gra**
 +  * **matemat__i__ca**
 +  * **albatr__o__s**
 +  * **ran__u__r**
 +
 +Adding a suffix can move the stress:
 +
 +  * **matemat__i__ca** (~)→(~) **matematic__a__l**
 +  * **radiogr__a__f** (~)→(~) **radiogr__a__fia** (no change)
 +  * **radiogr__a__f** (~)→(~) **radiograf__i__ste**
 +
 +But adding the plural **-s** does not move the stress:
 +
 +  * **un f__a__lda** (~)→(~) **du f__a__ldas**
 +  * **un jov__e__n** (~)→(~) **tre jov__e__nes**
 +  * **__a__mbos** – this special word is stressed like a plural
 +
 +The I or U of a diphthong behaves like a consonant in this regard:
 +
 +  * **ab__a__ia**
 +  * **c__i__ui**
 +  * **bons__a__i**
 +  * **cac__a__u**
 +
 +If no vowel precedes the last consonant, the first vowel is stressed:
 +
 +  * **tr__a__e**
 +  * **f__e__a**
 +  * **t__i__o**
 +  * **pr__o__a**
 +  * **j__u__a**
 +
 +Some words have multiple vowels after their last consonant. If the vowels are IA, IE, IO, UA, UE, or UO, the stress still goes on the vowel before the consonant:
 +
 +  * **as__e__ntua**
 +  * **jel__o__sia**
 +  * **r__i__tuo**
 +  * **__a__lio**
 +
 +However, when the final vowels are AE, AO, EA, EO, OA, OE, o UI, the stress goes on the first vowel of the pair:
 +
 +  * **con__e__o**
 +  * **id__e__a**
 +  * **sutr__a__e**
 +  * **prod__u__i**
 +
 +(But in **est__i__ngui**,​ the U is a semivowel because of [[#​diphthongs|another rule]].)
 +
 +**Ala**, **asi**, **agu**, **ami**, **enemi**, **perce**, **alo**, and **ura** are often pronounced with the stress on the final vowel rather than on the previous one. Either pronunciation is acceptable.
 +
 +Compound words such as **parario** and **mediadia** retain the original stress of the second component.
 +
 +Elefen is not a tonal language: words are not distinguished by changes in the pitch of the voice. However, one way to indicate that a sentence is a question is to end on a rise:
 +
 +  * **Tu parla portuges?** – with a rising pitch in the last word
 +  * **Tu no parla portuges.** – with a flat or falling pitch
 +
 +===== Phonotactics =====
 +
 +The forms of ordinary words in Elefen are constrained by certain rules.
 +
 +Two examples of the same vowel (such as **aa**) cannot be adjacent, except where this is the result of adding a prefix: "​reenvia",​ "​coopera"​. In these cases, both vowels are pronounced.
 +
 +The sequences **ei** and **ou** are invalid. But **ei** is allowed in words that start with **re-**, such as **reincarne**. The two vowels are pronounced individually.
 +
 +The sequence **ei** is normally only found in words with a prefix that ends in **e** (such as **preistoria** and **reincarne**) and in words with a suffix that starts with **i** (such as **fein** and **veida**). The standard pronunciation of **ei** is as two separate vowels, but [ej] and [e] are allowed if a speaker prefers.
 +
 +The sequence **ou** is not normally acceptable.
 +
 +Where a suffix would create an invalid vowel sequence, the second vowel of the sequence is dropped:
 +
 +  * **comedia** + **-iste** (~)→(~) (comediiste) (~)→(~) **comediste** – comedian
 +
 +Only the following 22 consonant clusters are allowed at the start of a syllable:
 +
 +  * **bl-, cl-, fl-, gl-, pl-**
 +  * **br-, cr-, dr-, fr-, gr-, pr-, tr-**
 +  * **sc-, sf-, sl-, sp-, st-**
 +  * ** scl-, scr-, spl-, spr-, str-**
 +
 +Only the following consonants are allowed at the end of a syllable, and they must be directly preceded by a vowel:
 +
 +  * **-f**, **-s**, **-x**
 +  * **-m**, **-n**, **-l**, **-r**
 +
 +A consonant cluster in the middle of a word is valid if it can be split over two valid syllables:
 +
 +  * **encontrante** = **en-con-tran-te**
 +  * **mostrablia** = **mo-stra-bli-a**
 +  * **instinto** = **in-stin-to**
 +
 +Proper nouns, along with technical, international,​ or culture-specific words, are free to break these rules.
  
gramatica/en/spelling_and_pronunciation.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:44 par Simon