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gramatica:en:sentences

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gramatica:en:sentences [2019/07/14 10:07]
Simon
gramatica:en:sentences [2019/08/10 11:44] (corente)
Simon
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 +{{page>​naviga}}
 +
 +====== Sentences ======
 +
 +Most **sentences** in Elefen contain a [[verbs|verb phrase]], typically denoting the occurrence of an action. A verb phrase consists of a verb plus any modifiers such as [[adverbs|adverbs]] or [[prepositions|prepositional phrases]].
 +
 +Most sentences also contain at least one [[nouns#​noun_phrases|noun phrase]], typically denoting a person or thing. A noun phrase consists of a noun plus any modifiers such as [[determiners|determiners]],​ [[adjectives|adjectives]],​ and [[prepositions|prepositional phrases]]. ​
 +
 +===== Subject and object =====
 +
 +The two most important noun phrases are the **subject** and the **object**. Their exact meaning depends on the choice of verb, but loosely speaking, the subject is the person or thing that carries out the action, and the object is the person or thing that is directly affected by the action.
 +
 +In Elefen, the subject always precedes the verb, and the object always follows:
 +
 +  * **La gato** xasa **la scural**. – The cat //​(subject)//​ ... chases //(verb)// ... the squirrel //​(object)//​.
 +  * **La xica** gusta **la musica**. – The girl //​(subject)//​ ... likes //(verb)// ... the music //​(object)//​.
 +  * **La can** dormi. – The dog //​(subject)//​ ... sleeps //(verb)//.
 +
 +Most verbs require a subject, but [[verbs#​transitivity|many do not require an object]].
 +
 +===== Complements =====
 +
 +Another common sentence component is the **complement**. This is an extra description of the subject that can follow verbs like **es** (be), **deveni** (become), **pare** (seem), and **resta** (remain):
 +
 +  * Computadores es **macinas**. – Computers //​(subject)//​ ... are //(verb)// ... machines //​(complement)//​.
 +  * La aira pare **umida**. – The air //​(subject)//​ ... seems //(verb)// ... damp //​(complement)//​.
 +  * La comeda deveni **fria**. – The food //​(subject)//​ ... becomes //(verb)// ... cold //​(complement)//​.
 +  * La patatas ia resta **calda**. – The potatoes //​(subject)//​ ... stayed //(verb)// ... hot //​(complement)//​.
 +  * Nosa taxe es **reconstrui la mur**. – Our task //​(subject)//​ ... is //(verb)// ... to rebuild the wall //​(complement:​ a nested sentence)//​.
 +  * La idea es **ce tu canta**. – The idea //​(subject)//​ ... is //(verb)// ... that you sing //​(complement:​ a nested sentence)//​.
 +
 +Some languages also allow the object to have a complement, as in "I find this cheese //​disgusting//"​ or "They elected him //​president//"​. This type of complement does not occur in Elefen.
 +
 +===== Prepositions =====
 +
 +One other major sentence component is the [[prepositions|prepositional phrase]], which adds detail to a preceding noun or verb, or to the sentence as a whole:
 +
 +  * La om ia cade **tra sua seja**. – The man //​(subject)//​ ... fell //(verb)// ... through his chair //​(prepositional phrase)//.
 +  * **En la note**, la stelas apare. – In the night //​(prepositional phrase)// ... the stars //​(subject)//​ ... appear //(verb)//.
 +  * Me dona esta poma **a tu**. – I //​(subject)//​ ... give //(verb)// ... this apple //​(object)//​ ... to you //​(prepositional phrase)//.
 +  * Tu no aspeta **como tua foto**. – You //​(subject)//​ ... don't look //(verb)// ... like your photo //​(prepositional phrase)//.
 +
 +===== Clauses =====
 +
 +In addition to phrases, some sentences contain [[clauses]],​ which resemble smaller sentences nested within the larger sentence. They can modify noun phrases, verb phrases, or the whole of the larger sentence:
 +
 +  * La om **ci ia abita asi** ia vade a Nu Iorc. – The man who lived here went to New York.
 +  * El va visita en julio, **cuando la clima es bon**. – He will visit in July, when the weather is good.
 +  * On no ia permete me fa la cosas **como me ia desira**. – I wasn't allowed to do things as I wanted.
 +  * Me pensa **ce el es bela**. – I think that she is beautiful.
  
gramatica/en/sentences.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:44 par Simon