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gramatica:en:questions [2019/07/14 11:46]
Simon creada
gramatica:en:questions [2019/08/10 11:47] (corente)
Simon
Linia 1: Linia 1:
 +{{page>​naviga}}
 +
 +====== Questions ======
 +
 +There are three kinds of **question**:​ those that can be answered with a simple "​yes"​ or "​no",​ those that present a range of options to choose from, and those that ask for a particular piece of information.
 +
 +Additionally,​ questions can be **direct** ("​Where are we going?"​) or **indirect** ("I asked you where we are going",​ "I don't know who I am"). Direct questions end in a question mark (**?**).
 +
 +===== Yes/no questions =====
 +
 +A sentence can be turned into a yes/no question by adding **esce** ("is it the case that..."​) at the start:
 +
 +  * **Esce** tu parla deutx? – Do you speak German?
 +  * **Esce** tu ia come la salada? – Did you eat the salad?
 +
 +There are two other ways. In speech, in questions that present a possibility and merely ask for confirmation,​ **si?** or **no?** can be added at the end of the sentence. And in very simple questions, a speaker can simply raise the pitch of their voice at the end:
 +
 +  * Tu ia come la salada, **si**?
 +  * Tu ia come la salada, **no**?
 +  * Tu ia come, **si**?
 +  * Nos es perdeda, **no**?
 +  * Vos comprende**?​**
 +
 +The answer to a yes/no question is **si** ("​yes"​) or **no** ("​no"​). **Si** states that the possibility expressed in the question is true; **no** states that it is false:
 +
 +  * Tu desira bir? – Do you want beer?
 +    * **Si**, per favore. – Yes, please. //(I do want beer)//
 +    * **No**, grasias. – No, thanks. //(I don't want beer)//
 +
 +If the question was phrased in the negative, **si** and **no** convey the same meanings as they would if the question had not been negative. But this can be confusing, so it can be clearer to answer with a full sentence:
 +
 +  * Tu no desira bir? – Don't you want beer?
 +    * **Si**. – Yes. //(I do want beer)//
 +    * **No**. – No. //(I don't want beer)//
 +    * **Si**, me desira bir. – Yes, I want beer.
 +    * **No**, me no desira bir. – No, I don't want beer.
 +
 +===== Alternative questions =====
 +
 +An alternative question simply asks the listener to pick one of a number of options, usually expressed as a list joined with the [[conjunctions#​coordinating_conjunctions|conjunction]] **o**:
 +
 +  * Tu desira te, cafe, **o** bir? – Do you want tea, coffee, or beer?
 +    * Cafe, per favore. – Coffee, please.
 +  * Tu ia veni par auto, **o** par bisicle, **o** tu ia pasea? – Did you come by car, or by bicycle, or did you walk?
 +    * Par auto, probable. – By car, probably.
 +
 +===== Other questions =====
 +
 +Other questions use interrogative [[determiners#​interrogatives|determiners]],​ [[pronouns#​interrogative_and_relative_pronouns|pronouns]],​ or [[adverbs#​interrogative_and_relative_adverbs|adverbs]] such as **cual**, **ci**, **cuando**, **cuanto**, **como**, **do**, and **perce**. The interrogative word is usually moved to the start of the sentence, but it can also appear in the place where its answer would fit:
 +
 +  * **Cual** libro tu leje? = Tu leje **cual** libro? – Which book are you reading?
 +  * **Ci** es tua autor prefereda? = Tu autor prefereda es **ci**? – Who is your preferred author?
 +  * **Cual** es acel musica fea? = Acel musica fea es **cual**? – What is this ugly music?
 +  * **Cuando** tu dormi? = Tu dormi **cuando**? – When do you sleep?
 +  * **Cuanto** tu ia paia? = Tu ia paia **cuanto**? – How much did you pay?
 +  * **Como** vos ia evade? = Vos ia evade **como**? – How did you escape?
 +  * **Do** nos es? = **Do** es nos? = Nos es **do**? – Where are we?
 +  * **Perce** tu core? = Tu core **perce**? – Why are you running?
 +  * **Con cual** tu come la salada? = Tu come la salada **con cual**? – What do you eat the salad with?
 +  * **Cual force** tu usa per come la salada? = Tu usa **cual force** per come la salada? – Which fork do you use to eat the salad?
 +  * **Con cual force** tu come la salada? = Tu come la salada **con cual force**? – Which fork do you eat the salad with?
 +  * **Como rapida** tu pote come la salada? = Tu pote come la salada **como rapida**? – How quickly can you eat the salad?
 +
 +===== Reported questions =====
 +
 +Reported questions (also known as "​indirect questions"​) are expressed as [[clauses#​noun_clauses|noun clauses]], which normally contain the same series of words as a direct question would have, including the same verbal tense. In a reported question, the question word is always placed at the start of the subordinate clause:
 +
 +  * Vos va demanda: "Ci tu ia vide?" (~)→(~) Vos va demanda **ci** me ia vide.
 +    * You will ask: "Who did you see?" (~)→(~) You will ask who I saw.
 +  * Me no recorda: "A ci me ia parla?"​ (~)→(~) Me no recorda a **ci** me ia parla.
 +    * I don't remember: "To whom did I speak?"​ (~)→(~) I don't remember to whom I spoke.
 +  * Los no sabe: "Cual nos va fa?" (~)→(~) Los no sabe **cual cosa** los va fa.
 +    * They don't know: "What are we going to do?" (~)→(~) They don't know what they are going to do. 
 +  * Me vide: "Do me va senta?"​ (~)→(~) Me vide **do** me va senta.
 +    * I see: "Where will I sit?" (~)→(~) I see where I will sit.
 +  * Me no ia sabe: "​Cuando nos va parti?"​ (~)→(~) **Cuando** me va parti, me no ia sabe.
 +    * I didn't know: "When will we depart?"​ (~)→(~) When I would depart, I didn't know.
 +
 +Yes/no questions, when reported, always use **esce**:
 +
 +  * El no sabe: "Esce los ia parti?"​ (~)→(~) El no sabe **esce** los ia parti.
 +    * He doesn'​t know: "Did we depart?"​ (~)→(~) He doesn'​t know whether we departed. ​
 +  * El ia demanda: "Esce tu pote aida?" (~)→(~) El ia demanda **esce** me pote aida.
 +    * He asked: "Can you help?" (~)→(~) He asked whether I could help.
 +
 +In some cases, the difference between a reported question and an relative clause is very subtle:
 +
 +  * (a) Me ia descovre **cual cosa ia es en la caxa**. – I discovered what had been in the box. (a reported question)
 +  * (b) Me ia descovre lo **cual ia es en la caxa**. – I discovered the thing that had been in the box. (a relative clause)
 +
 +In example (a), I discovered the //​identity//​ of the thing in the box, even if I didn't see or touch it directly. In example (b), I discovered //it//, the physical thing itself.
  
gramatica/en/questions.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:47 par Simon