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gramatica:en:punctuation

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gramatica:en:punctuation [2019/07/16 10:52]
Simon
gramatica:en:punctuation [2019/08/10 11:49] (corente)
Simon
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 +{{page>​naviga}}
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 +====== Punctuation ======
 +
 +In general, Elefen leaves the choice of **punctuation** up to the writer, the only standards being those of clarity and consistency. There are certain basic conventions,​ though, which are the same as in most European languages.
 +
 +The first word in a sentence should start with a [[spelling_and_pronunciation#​capital_letters|capital letter]].
 +
 +===== Primary punctuation marks =====
 +
 +An ordinary sentence ends with a **period** or **full stop** (%%%%(~)''​.''​(~)%%%%).
 +
 +If a sentence is a direct question, it ends with a **question mark** (%%%%(~)''?''​(~)%%%%).
 +
 +An **exclamation mark** (%%%%(~)''​!''​(~)%%%%) can be used at the end of a sentence that would have an emotional intensity if spoken.
 +
 +A **comma** (%%%%(~)'',''​(~)%%%%) indicates a natural pause in a sentence, or is sometimes just included to clearly separate one part of a sentence (such as a clause) from another. Commas are also used to separate the items of a list.
 +
 +When writing numbers, the decimal point can be written as either a comma or a period (dot). Adjacent groups of three digits can be separated by spaces.
 +
 +The **colon** (%%%%(~)'':''​(~)%%%%) introduces a more detailed presentation of what precedes it. Use a capital letter after a colon if what follows is a complete sentence, but not if it's just a list or part of a sentence.
 +
 +The **semicolon** (%%%%(~)'';''​(~)%%%%) can be used in place of a period between two sentences that closely reflect or balance each other. It can also separate the items of a list where these are lengthy or contain their own commas.
 +
 +Don't place a space to the left of a primary punctuation mark. But do place a space to the right, except at the end of a paragraph.
 +
 +===== Quotation marks =====
 +
 +A **quotation mark** appears at the start and end of words that are presented as a direct quotation. There are various forms of quotation mark in the world, including ''​%%'​%%''​ ''"''​ ''​‹''​...''​›''​ ''​«''​...''​»''​.
 +
 +In Elefen, the form ''"''​ is normally used, as it's clear, easy to type, and international. When one quotation appears within another, ''​%%'​%%''​ is placed around the inner quotation – there'​s an example below. In good typography, as in books, the curved forms ''​“”''​ and ''​‘’''​ are used, but these are unnecessary in everyday communication. Don't place spaces between the quotation marks and the quoted text.
 +
 +In some languages, a dash (%%%%(~)—(~)%%%%) appears in the middle of dialogue when a new person begins to speak, instead of quotation marks. We recommend avoiding this in Elefen, because it's less clear, and can be confused with other uses of dashes.
 +
 +When quoting the words of a character in a story, the quotation is often accompanied by a //tag// indicating who is speaking, and their manner. For such sentences in Elefen, it's best to place a dash between this tag and each part of the quotation. That way it's easy to preserve the exact punctuation of the original sentence:
 +
 +  * La vendor murmura – "Ma lo no es tan simple, mea ami."
 +  * "Me acorda."​ – la om responde felis.
 +  * "Perce tu es asi?" – la fem demanda.
 +  * "​Cisa"​ – la bonvolor sujesta – "me pote aida."
 +  * "Me ave un ami nomida Freda,"​ – el esplica – "ci es un tortuga."​
 +
 +When writing about languages and quoting a word or phrase in order to mention it, just use quotation marks:
 +
 +  * Me gusta la parola "​xuxa"​.
 +  * Sua sposa ia comenta – "Me gusta la parola '​xuxa'​."​
 +
 +===== Minor punctuation marks =====
 +
 +The **ellipsis** (%%%%(~)''​…''​(~)%%%%) suggests a pause, or indicates that some words have been left out.
 +
 +**Dashes** (%%%%(~)–(~) o (~)—(~)%%%%) and **parentheses** (%%%%(~)''​(''​...''​)''​(~)%%%%) surround comments inserted into the normal flow of a sentence.
 +
 +The **apostrophe** (%%%%(~)''​%%'​%%''​(~)%%%%) indicates that a vowel has been omitted. This normally only occurs in verse.
 +
 +In Elefen, **currency symbols** (€, ¥, £, $, etc) are written before or after the digits of prices, according to the custom of the country in question.
 +
 +Additional punctuation marks exist, but their usage has little connection to the rules of Elefen.
  
gramatica/en/punctuation.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:49 par Simon