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gramatica:en:prepositions

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gramatica:en:prepositions [2019/08/10 11:46]
Simon
gramatica:en:prepositions [2019/11/30 10:44] (corente)
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 +
 +====== Prepositions ======
 +
 +A **preposition** is a special word that introduces a [[nouns#​noun_phrases|noun phrase]], forming a **preposition phrase**. A preposition phrase typically modifies a preceding noun, pronoun, adjective, or adverb – or it can modify a whole sentence. The preposition indicates how the noun phrase relates to the containing structure, showing the role it plays in the modification.
 +
 +LFN has 22 prepositions.
 +
 +===== a =====
 +
 +**A** means "​at"​. It presents a place or a time as a simple point, or as a general space or period, ignoring its internal structure:
 +
 +  * Nos senta **a** la table. – We are sitting at the table.
 +  * Me va encontra tu **a** la crus de vias. – I'll meet you at the crossroads.
 +  * La scala apoia **a** la mur. – The ladder is leaning on the wall.
 +  * Tua casa es **a** lado de mea casa. – Your house is next to mine.
 +  * El reposa **a** casa. – He's resting at home.
 +  * Sudan es **a** sude de Misre. – Sudan is to the south of Egypt.
 +  * La barco es **a** mar. – The ship is at sea.
 +  * El ia fini la labora **a** la comensa de la anio. – She finished the work at the start of the year.
 +  * **A** medianote, on va vide focos de arte. – At midnight, there will be fireworks.
 +  * Me debe parti **a** la ora des-ses. – I have to leave at four o'​clock.
 +
 +By metaphorical extension, **a** introduces the point of reference in a relationship:​
 +
 +  * Tu sta tro prosima **a** la borda. – You're standing too close to the edge.
 +  * La forma de Italia es simil **a** un gama. – The shape of Italy is similar to a leg.
 +  * Esta pen parteni **a** me. – This pen belongs to me.
 +  * Cual aveni si on no conforma **a** la regulas? – What happens if you don't conform to the rules?
 +  * **A** la min tredes persones espeta. – At least thirty people are waiting.
 +
 +In addition, **a** can express movement towards a point. This includes metaphorical movements such as transfers to recipients, and changes into new states:
 +
 +  * Me viaja **a** New York. – I am travelling to New York.
 +  * Pone tua libros **a** via. – Put your books away.
 +  * El leva sua oios **a** la sielo. – He raises his eyes to the sky.
 +  * El ia dona un oso **a** la can. – She gave a bone to the dog / She gave the dog a bone.
 +  * La sorsor ia cambia se **a** un capra. – The wizard changed himself into a goat.
 +  * La seja ia cade **a** pesos. – The chair fell to bits.
 +  * La xico ia ajunta sua nom **a** la lista. – The boy added his name to the list.
 +  * Dise **a** me tua nom. – Tell me your name.
 +  * Me no va responde **a** acel demanda. – I will not answer that question.
 +  * Nos desira **a** tu un bon aniversario. – We wish you a happy birthday.
 +  * Tua idea pare asurda **a** me. – Your idea seems absurd to me.
 +  * Me pasea longo la strada, de un fini **a** la otra. – I walk down the street, from one end to the other.
 +  * Tu irita me de tempo **a** tempo. – You annoy me from time to time.
 +  * La note progresa **a** la lus prima. – The night is progressing towards dawn.
 +  * De lundi **a** jovedi es cuatro dias. – From Monday to Thursday is four days.
 +
 +In fact, any preposition that indicates a location can also indicate movement towards that location. For example, in **me pone mea libros en mea saco** ("I put my books in my bag"), **en** obviously implies motion "​into"​. When extra clarity is needed, **a** can be placed before the preposition to clarify the sense of movement towards:
 +
 +  * Core **a** la casa. – Run to the house.
 +  * Core **en** la casa. – Run in the house.
 +  * Core **a en** la casa. – Run into the house.
 +  * La gato salta **sur** la table. – The cat jumps on the table.
 +  * La gato salta **a sur** la table. – The cat jumps onto the table.
 +
 +A special use of **a** is before another preposition,​ to create an [[adverbs|adverb]]. If the preposition denotes a place, the combination suggests movement in the direction indicated. **A ante** and **a pos** are also used to denote earlier or later //times//:
 +
 +  * La can core **a ante**. – The dog runs forward.
 +  * Tu pote pone tua saco **a supra**. – You can put your bag overhead.
 +  * La sumerjor ia vade **a su**. – The diver went down.
 +  * Vide **a su**. – See below.
 +  * Me ia visita esta vila **a ante**. – I have visited this town before.
 +  * Nos pote reveni **a pos**. – We can return later.
 +
 +Another special use of **a** is to add a complement to the object in a sentence. (In some cases, other prepositions can also be used for this purpose.)
 +
 +  * El ia pinti sua casa **a** blanca. – He painted his house white.
 +  * Me va servi la gambas **a**/​**en** fria. – I will serve the shrimp cold.
 +  * Los ia eleje Maria **a**/​**per** presidente. – They elected Maria (as) president.
 +
 +The complement can be an infinitive. "​Per"​ can be used instead of "​a",​ but then the meaning is that the //subject// of the main verb intends to perform the action of the infinitive verb. **A** indicates that the subject intends the //object// to do it:
 +
 +  * El comanda la soldatos **a** ataca la fortres. – He orders the soldiers to attack the fort.
 +  * Me va instrui vos **a** parla la lingua. – I will teach you to speak the language.
 +
 +===== ante =====
 +
 +**Ante** means "​before"​ or "in front of". Its opposite is **[[#​pos|pos]]**.
 +
 +In space, **ante** indicates a location at the more important side of a specified object. Which side is more important depends on the object and its context. Many things have an obvious front side with which they face the world; in other cases **ante** just means "at the nearer side of":
 +
 +  * Mea peto es **ante** mea dorso. – My chest is in front of my back.
 +  * La jornales es **ante** la libros. – The magazines are in front of the books.
 +  * Lo es tan oscur ce me no pote vide mea mano **ante** mea oios. – It's so dark that I can't see my hand in front of my eyes.
 +  * Un can reposa **ante** la boteca. – A dog is lying in front of the shop.
 +  * Nos ave multe labora **ante** nos. – We have a lot of work ahead of us.
 +
 +In time, **ante** indicates a point that precedes a specified time:
 +
 +  * Janero veni **ante** febrero. – January comes before February.
 +  * Los intende fini la labora **ante** la reposa de sol. – They intend to finish work before sunset.
 +  * Verje a sinistra **ante** la fini de la strada. – Turn left before the end of the street.
 +  * Nos esperia la lampo **ante** la tona. – We experience lightning before thunder.
 +
 +**Ante** can also indicate movement to a point in front of something (= **a ante**):
 +
 +  * On ia pone un monton de libros **ante** me. – They put a pile of books in front of me.
 +  * Me veni **ante** tu per demanda per tua pardona. – I come before you to apologize.
 +
 +**Ante cuando** means "​before"​ as a conjunction ("​before the time when"​):​
 +
 +  * Nos vide la lampo **ante cuando** nos oia la tona. – We see lightning before we hear thunder.
 +
 +===== asta =====
 +
 +**Asta** means "up to" or "as far as" a specified object or location:
 +
 +  * El ia acompania me **asta** mea auto. – She accompanied me to my car.
 +  * La tera es covreda con neva **asta** la montania. – The ground is covered in snow as far as the mountains.
 +  * Me es empapada **asta** mea pel. – I am soaked to the skin.
 +  * La preso ia cade **asta** sola un euro. – The price fell to just one euro.
 +  * El ia visita cada pais de Andora **asta** Zambia. – He's visited every country from Andorra to Zambia.
 +  * Studia pajes dudes-sinco **asta** cuatrodes-du. – Study pages 25 to 42 (inclusive).
 +
 +This leads to the temporal sense of **asta**, which is "​until":​
 +
 +  * El labora **asta** medianote. – He works until midnight.
 +  * Espeta **asta** la estate. – Wait until the summer.
 +  * **Asta** doman! – Until tomorrow / See you tomorrow!
 +
 +===== ca =====
 +
 +**Ca** means "​than"​. It indicates the reference point for an inequality comparison:
 +
 +  * Mea can es plu intelijente **ca** me. – My dog is more intelligent than me.
 +  * Acel es multe min interesante **ca** esta. – That is much less interesting than this.
 +  * La sielo e tera ave cosas plu **ca** tu imajina en tua filosofia. – There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in your philosophy.
 +
 +===== como =====
 +
 +**Como** means "​as"​ or "​like"​. It indicates the reference point for an equality comparison:
 +
 +  * El rie **como** un iena. — He laughs like a hyena.
 +  * Tua cor es dur **como** petra. – Your heart is hard as stone.
 +  * Iogurte es **como** crema. – Yoghurt is like cream.
 +  * Tu ia veni a la mesma conclui **como** me. – You've reached the same conclusion as me.
 +  * Me pote salta tan alta **como** tu. – I can jump as high as you.
 +  * Condui **como** un adulte. – Behave like an adult.
 +
 +===== con =====
 +
 +**Con** means "​with"​. Its opposite is **[[#​sin|sin]]**.
 +
 +It introduces an accompanying person, thing, or state:
 +
 +  * Me vide la xica **con** sua padre. – I see the girl with her father.
 +  * Los vole come **con** nos. – They want to eat with us.
 +  * Nos bevi cafe **con** lete. – We are drinking coffee with milk.
 +  * On ia misca la zucar **con** sal. – The sugar has been mixed with salt.
 +  * Los batalia **con** la elementos. – They are battling with the elements.
 +  * No multe parolas comensa **con** X. – Not many words start with X.
 +  * El ia dona a me un libro **con** multe fotos. – She's given me a book with many photos.
 +  * Elena es un xica **con** capeles roja. – Elena is a girl with red hair.
 +  * La om vea senta **con** un pipa en sua boca. – The old man sits with a pipe in his mouth.
 +  * Sua sposa regarda el **con** stona. – His wife looks at him in amazement.
 +  * Compara esta **con** la clima de ier. – Compare this with yesterday'​s weather.
 +  * Tota cambia **con** la pasa de tempo. – Everything changes with the passage of time.
 +  * A cada dia, me leva **con** la sol. – Every day I get up with the sun.
 +  * E **con** acel parolas, el ia desapare. – And with those words he disappeared.
 +
 +**Con** can also mean "by means of", presenting something that is used as a tool:
 +
 +  * Me scrive **con** un pen. – I write with a pen.
 +  * Nos oia **con** nosa oreas. – We hear with our ears.
 +  * La cavalo colpa **con** sua pede. – The horse kicks.
 +  * El ia compra un casa **con** la mone cual el ia erita. – He bought a house with the money he inherited.
 +
 +When an action happens by means of something more abstract or less tool-like, **[[#​par|par]]** is preferred.
 +
 +**An con** means "​despite":​
 +
 +  * Nos va fali **an con** tu aida. – We will fail even with your help.
 +
 +===== contra =====
 +
 +**Contra** means "​against"​. It introduces something that faces or moves in the opposite direction, either for real or metaphorically:​
 +
 +  * Clui tua oios **contra** la lus. – Close your eyes against the light.
 +  * Esta camera es secur **contra** acua. – This camera is waterproof.
 +  * La elinicas antica ia batalia **contra** Parsa. – The ancient Greeks fought against Persia.
 +  * La scala es **contra** la sepe. – The ladder is against the fence.
 +  * El lisca e cade **contra** la mur. – He slips and falls against the wall.
 +  * Nada **contra** la flue es difisil. – Swimming upstream is hard.
 +  * Me es **contra** la gera. – I am against the war.
 +  * Tu ia ata **contra** mea desiras. – You have acted against my wishes.
 +
 +===== de =====
 +
 +**De** means "​from"​. It presents something as an origin:
 +
 +  * Me es **de** New York. – I am from New York.
 +  * Me viaja **de** Paris a London. – I'm traveling from Paris to London.
 +  * La paperes ia cade **de** la fenetra. – The papers fell from the window.
 +  * Me ia reseta un letera **de** la re. – I have received a letter from the king.
 +  * La furor asconde sua fas **de** la cameras. – The robber hides his face from the cameras.
 +  * La acua difere **de** la asida par sua cimica. – Water differs from acid in its chemistry.
 +  * La resulta depende **de** la metodo usada. – The result depends on the method used.
 +  * Nos labora ja **de** la lus prima. – We've been working since dawn.
 +  * Multe anios ia pasa **de** la gera. – Many years have passed since the war.
 +  * La table es fada **de** lenio. – The table is made of wood.
 +  * Tu gusta carne **de** oveta? – Do you like lamb?
 +
 +By extension, **de** introduces the person or thing that something belongs to:
 +
 +  * Acel es la auto **de** mea frate. – That is my brother'​s car.
 +  * Me gusta escuta la canta **de** la avias. – I like listening to the singing of the birds.
 +  * El ia es impresada par la cuietia **de** la foresta. – She was impressed by the stillness of the forest.
 +  * Dona un peso **de** torta a me, per favore. – Give me a piece of cake, please.
 +
 +More abstractly, **de** often indicates a general relationship between two things, or between a quality or action and a thing:
 +
 +  * Me ave tre caxas **de** libros per vende. – I have three boxes of books to sell.
 +  * El ia presta a me un tela **de** un color fea. – She lent me an ugly-colored towel.
 +  * La tore ave cuatro metres **de** altia. – The tower is forty metres high.
 +  * Esta balde es plen **de** pexes. – This bucket is full of fish.
 +  * Nos vole es libre **de** vos. – We want to be free of you.
 +  * La ora ia veni per parla **de** multe cosas. – The time has come to talk of many things.
 +
 +What would be a compound noun in some languages is commonly expressed as two nouns joined by **de** in LFN:
 +
 +  * Mea oculo **de** sol es rompeda. – My sunglasses are broken.
 +  * La gavota es un avia **de** mar. – The seagull is a seabird.
 +  * Esta va es tua sala **de** dormi. – This will be your bedroom.
 +  * Tu ia oblida aplica la freno **de** mano. – You forgot to apply the handbrake.
 +  * Per sua come **de** matina, el bevi sola cafe. – For his breakfast, he just drinks coffee.
 +  * El es la campion **de** mundo **de** tenis **de** table – He is the world table-tennis champion.
 +
 +**De** occurs as the second element in a number of fixed expressions that function as complex prepositions:​
 +
 +  * Los ia ajunta tota ingredientes **con eseta de** la sal. – They added all the ingredients except the salt.
 +  * Los ia usa zucar **en loca de** sal. – They used sugar instead of salt.
 +  * Me es tarda **par causa de** un conjesta de trafica. – I'm late because of a traffic jam.
 +  * La campaneria es **a destra de** la catedral. – The belltower is to the right of the cathedral.
 +
 +**De** can be placed before another preposition to indicate motion away from:
 +
 +  * La gato salta **de sur** la seja. – The cat jumps off the chair.
 +  * Un arania rampe **de pos** la orolojo. – A spider creeps from behind the clock.
 +  * La pasaros asende **de entre** la arbores. – The sparrows climb from among the trees.
 +
 +Like **[[#​a|a]]**,​ **de** can convert a preposition to an [[adverbs|adverb]]. The adverb means "from the location suggested by the context":​
 +
 +  * La monstro ia veni **de su**. – The monster came from below.
 +  * La gidor ia cria **de ante**, ma me no ia pote oia. – The leader was shouting from the front, but I couldn'​t hear.
 +
 +**De cuando** means "​since"​ as a conjunction ("from the time when"​):​
 +
 +  * **De cuando** me ia es un enfante, me desira sta sur la luna. – Since I was a child, I've wanted to stand on the moon.
 +
 +===== en =====
 +
 +**En** means "​in"​. Its opposite is **[[#​estra|estra]]**.
 +
 +It indicates a location in space or time that is wholly or partly contained in something else:
 +
 +  * Mea cor es **en** mea peto. – My heart is in my chest.
 +  * La sol es **en** la sielo. – The sun is in the sky.
 +  * Nos espeta **en** la auto. – We are waiting in the car.
 +  * La plantas es **en** vasos. – The plants are in pots.
 +  * Sua ditos es fisada **en** la manico de un tas. – His fingers are stuck in the handle of a cup.
 +  * Me ave alga pensas **en** mea mente. – I have some thoughts in my mind.
 +  * Gatos no gusta es **en** acua. – Cats don't like being in water.
 +  * Nos no vide la stelas **en** la dia. – We don't see the stars in the day.
 +  * Beethoven ia nase **en** 1770. – Beethoven was born in 1770.
 +  * Nos ia visita la museo **en** febrero. – We visited the museum in February.
 +  * El ia scrive la libro **en** tre semanas. – She wrote the book in three weeks.
 +
 +Metaphorically,​ the location can be a state, or an activity, or a manner:
 +
 +  * Me no vole viaja **en** esta clima. – I don't want to travel in this weather.
 +  * La construida es **en** foco. – The building is on fire.
 +  * Nos es **en** peril. – We are in danger.
 +  * Esce nos es **en** acorda? – Are we in agreement?
 +  * **En** ajunta, me vide un problem nova. – In addition, I see a new problem.
 +  * **En** fato, me vide du problemes. – In fact I see two problems.
 +  * Nos ia pasa un ora **en** conversa. – We spent an hour in conversation.
 +  * La enfantes senta **en** un sirculo. – The children are sitting in a circle.
 +  * Me va repete esta **en** elinica. – I will repeat this in Greek.
 +  * La presos es **en** euros. – The prices are in euros.
 +
 +**En** can also mean "​into"​ (= **a en**):
 +
 +  * El ia cade **en** la rio. – He fell into the river.
 +  * Pone la dejeto **en** la baldon. – Put the rubbish in the bin.
 +  * Un bon idea ia veni **en** sua testa. – A good idea came into her head.
 +  * Me ia tradui la article **en** franses. – I've translated the article into French.
 +  * Nos pasa **en** un eda nova. – We are passing into a new era.
 +
 +**En cuando** means "​while",​ "at a point during the time when":
 +
 +  * Lo ia comensa pluve forte **en cuando** la reportor ia parla. – It started raining heavily while the reporter was talking.
 +
 +===== entre =====
 +
 +**Entre** means "​between"​. It indicates that one place or time is surrounded by two or more others:
 +
 +  * Mea testa es **entre** mea oreas. – My head is between my ears.
 +  * La table es **entre** la seja e la mur. – The table is between the chair and the wall.
 +  * Txesco es **entre** Deutxland, Osteraic, Slovenia, e Polsca. – The Czech Republic is between Germany, Austria, Slovenia, and Poland.
 +  * El viaja **entre** Paris e Madrid a cada semana. – She travels between Paris and Madrid every week.
 +  * Tu es **entre** amis asi. – You are among friends here.
 +  * La bal ia cade **entre** la flores. – The ball fell among the flowers.
 +  * Cual es la difere **entre** un mur e un sepe? – What is the difference between a wall and a fence?
 +  * Elefen promove comunica **entre** poplas. – LFN promotes communication between peoples.
 +  * On va ave un interval de des minutos **entre** la du atas. – There will be a ten-minute interval between the two acts.
 +  * El ia nase **entre** la geras. – He was born between the wars.
 +  * Me velia usual **entre** sete e oto. – I usually wake up between seven and eight.
 +  * On debe paia **entre** des e dudes euros. – You have to pay between ten and twenty euros.
 +
 +===== estra =====
 +
 +**Estra** means "​outside"​. Its opposite is **[[#​en|en]]**.
 +
 +It indicates a location that is //not// contained in something else:
 +
 +  * Mea sapato es **estra** mea calseta. – My shoe is outside my sock.
 +  * El abita **estra** la site. – She lives outside the city.
 +  * On no ave aira **estra** la barcon. – There is no air outside the ship.
 +  * Tu es aora **estra** peril. – You are out of danger now.
 +  * No telefoni **estra** la oras de labora. – Don't phone outside work hours.
 +
 +**Estra** can also indicate movement towards such a location (= **a estra**):
 +
 +  * La enfantes core **estra** la casa. – The children ran outside the house.
 +
 +Metaphorically,​ **estra** can mean "​except for":
 +
 +  * El recorda no cosa **estra** sua nom. – He remembers nothing except for his name.
 +
 +===== longo =====
 +
 +**Longo** means "​along"​. It indicates the route that something follows as it moves:
 +
 +  * Me pasea **longo** la strada. – I walk along the street.
 +  * La balsa ia flota **longo** la rio. – The raft floated down the river.
 +  * La xico lisca **longo** la ramo. – The boy slides along the branch.
 +  * Un arania rampe **longo** mea gama. – There'​s a spider crawling up my leg.
 +
 +By extension, it can also mean "​according to" what someone has said or written:
 +
 +  * **Longo** la predise, oji va es an plu calda. – According to the forecast, tomorrow will be even warmer.
 +  * La viaja tra tempo es posible, **longo** esta fisiciste. – Time travel is possible, according to this physicist.
 +
 +===== par =====
 +
 +**Par** means "​by"​. It indicates the agent of a passive verb, or the author of a creation:
 +
 +  * El ia es colpada **par** un bal de neva. – He was hit by a snowball.
 +  * Me es surprendeda **par** tua reata. – I am surprised by your reaction.
 +  * Suiz es ensircada **par** otra paises. – Switzerland is surrounded by other countries.
 +  * //Hamlet// es un teatral **par** Shakespeare. – //Hamlet// is a play by Shakespeare.
 +
 +By extension, it also indicates an action or method by which something is done:
 +
 +  * Me ia viaja asi **par** tren. – I travelled here by train.
 +  * Roberto es mea fio **par** sposi. – Roberto is my son-in-law.
 +  * La botelas es codigida **par** color. – The bottles are color-coded.
 +  * Nos ia descovre tua secretas **par** nos spiores. – We discovered your secrets via our spies.
 +  * La prisonida ia evade **par** desembla se como un porte. – The prisoner escaped by disguising himself as a door.
 +  * Me va destrui la sepe **par** sola un colpa de pede. – I shall destroy the fence with a single kick.
 +  * On no pote solve esta problem **par** negosia. – This problem cannot be solved by negotiation.
 +
 +When a [[verbs#​transitivity|transitive verb]] is converted into a noun, and the verb's subject and object are of a similar nature (e.g. they'​re both people), **par** is used to indicate the subject and **de** or **a** to indicate the object:
 +
 +  * La ama **par** la madre. – The mother'​s love. //(The mother loves)//
 +  * La ama **de**/​**a** la madre. – The love of/for the mother. //(The mother is loved)//
 +  * La ataca **de** la troianes **par** la elinicas. – The attack of/on the Trojans by the Greeks. //(The Greeks attack the Trojans)//
 +
 +===== per =====
 +
 +**Per** means "​for"​. It introduces an intended goal or recipient:
 +
 +  * Nos labora **per** mone. – We work for money.
 +  * Tases es usada **per** bevi. – Cups are used for drinking.
 +  * Me viaja **per** vide la mundo. – I'm travelling (in order) to see the world.
 +  * Tu es vestida **per** un sera de dansa. – You're dressed for an evening of dancing.
 +  * Me va vade a la botecas **per** tu. – I will go to the shops for you.
 +  * El ia scrive la libro **per** sua madre. – She wrote the book for her mother.
 +  * La viaja va es perilosa **per** tu. – The journey will be dangerous for you.
 +  * Me batalia **per** mea vive. – I'm fighting for my life.
 +  * **Per** esta razona, me no pote parla longa. – For that reason, I can't talk for long.
 +  * **Per** esemplo, considera la balena. – For example, consider the whale.
 +
 +By extension, it also indicates an item exchanged for another:
 +
 +  * Tu ia paia tro **per** acel computador. – You paid too much for that computer.
 +  * Me ia compra lo **per** mil euros. – I bought it for a thousand euros.
 +  * Grasias **per** tua carta postal. – Thank you for your postcard.
 +
 +It can indicate an intended period of time:
 +
 +  * Nos vade a Colorado **per** un semana. – We are going to Colorado for a week.
 +  * Me no va retarda tu **per** plu ca un minuto. – I won't delay you for more than a minute.
 +
 +As a special case, **per** introduces something that is favoured or represented:​
 +
 +  * Me ia vota **per** la proposa, ma tu ia vota contra lo. – I voted for the proposal, but you voted against it.
 +  * Car tu no ia es ala, me ia parla **per** tu. – Because you weren'​t there, I spoke on your behalf.
 +
 +===== pos =====
 +
 +**Pos** means "​after"​ or "​behind"​. Its opposite is **[[#​ante|ante]]**.
 +
 +In space, it indicates a location at the less important side of a specified object:
 +
 +  * Mea dorso es **pos** mea peto. – My back is behind my chest.
 +  * La aparatos es **pos** un porte securida. – The equipment is behind a locked door.
 +  * La xicos turbosa ia asconde **pos** la cabana. – The naughty boys hid behind the shed.
 +
 +In time, **pos** indicates a point that follows a specified time:
 +
 +  * Desembre veni **pos** novembre. – December comes after November.
 +  * Los va comensa bevi **pos** la reposa de sol. – They will start drinking after sunset.
 +  * Verje a destra **pos** la eglesa. – Turn right after the church.
 +  * Me va reveni **pos** tre dias. – I will come back in three days.
 +
 +**Pos** can also indicate movement to a point behind something (= **a pos**):
 +
 +  * La serpente ia desapare **pos** la arbor. – The snake disappeared behind the tree.
 +
 +**Pos cuando** means "​after"​ as a conjunction ("​after the time when"​):​
 +
 +  * Nos oia la tona **pos cuando** nos vide la lampo. – We hear thunder after we see lightning.
 +
 +===== sin =====
 +
 +**Sin** means "​without"​. It indicates something that is absent:
 +
 +  * Tua sposa gusta sua cafe **sin** lete. – Your wife likes her coffee without milk.
 +  * Me ia pasea tra la pluve **sin** parapluve. – I walked through the rain with no umbrella.
 +  * On ave no fuma **sin** foco. – There'​s no smoke without fire.
 +  * Me va decora la casa intera **sin** aida. – I shall decorate the entire house without help.
 +  * Tu es tota **sin** compatia. – You are totally without mercy.
 +  * El ia adormi **sin** intende. – He fell asleep without meaning to.
 +  * La rexercor ia sorti **sin** descovre la responde. – The researcher left without discovering the answer.
 +  * La depinta ia cade **sin** causa evidente. – The painting fell down for no apparent reason.
 +
 +===== sirca =====
 +
 +**Sirca** means "​around"​. It indicates a position that surrounds or encloses something else:
 +
 +  * La campores fa cantas **sirca** la foco. – The campers sing songs around the fire.
 +  * Mea mano es cluida **sirca** mea diton. – My hand is closed around my thumb.
 +  * Edera crese **sirca** la tronco. – Ivy grows around the trunk.
 +  * On ave pinta verde **sirca** la fenetras. – There is green paint around the windows.
 +
 +It can also indicate movement along a surrounding path:
 +
 +  * La luna vade **sirca** la tera, e la tera vade **sirca** la sol. – The moon goes around the earth, and the earth goes around the sun.
 +  * Nos intende viaja **sirca** la mundo par cavalo. – We intend to travel round the world on horseback.
 +  * El vaga **sirca** la jardin e ole la flores. – She wanders round the garden and smells the flowers.
 +
 +With expressions of time and quantity, **sirca** indicates that the value is approximate – the actual value is somewhere in the surrounding range:
 +
 +  * Me ave **sirca** sincodes anios. – I am about 50 years old.
 +  * Me pote pensa a **sirca** sento razonas per no revela mea eda. – I can think of about a hundred reasons not to reveal my age.
 +  * La conserta ia comensa **sirca** dui pos dudes. – The concert began at about half past eight.
 +  * **Sirca** la lus prima, me ia oia tua can abaiante. – Around dawn, I heard your dog barking.
 +
 +===== su =====
 +
 +**Su** means "​under"​. It indicates a location that is lower than another, either physically or metaphorically:​
 +
 +  * La neva craci **su** mea pedes. – The snow crunches under my feet.
 +  * La solo es **su** la sofito. – The floor is below the ceiling.
 +  * Antilopes ia reposa **su** la arbores. – Antelopes were resting under the trees.
 +  * Ave un table de sanduixes **su** la fenetra. – There'​s a table of sandwiches under the window.
 +  * Tu pare es **su** la influe de la vino. – You appear to be under the influence of the wine.
 +  * Me no pote labora **su** tua regulas. – I can't work under your rules.
 +
 +By extension, **su** can also indicate any location that is physically covered by something, whether it's actually lower or not:
 +
 +  * La color vera de la sofito es apena vidable **su** esta pinta fea. – The real color of the ceiling is scarcely visible under this nasty paint.
 +  * Me ave un paceta **su** mea braso. – I have a parcel under my arm.
 +  * El ia porta un sueter **su** sua jaca. – He wore a sweater under his jacket.
 +
 +**Su** can also indicate motion to a location below something (= **a su**):
 +
 +  * La acua ia vade **su** la mobilas. – The water went under the furniture.
 +
 +===== supra =====
 +
 +**Supra** means "​above"​. It indicates a location that is higher than another, either physically or metaphorically:​
 +
 +  * La nubes es **supra** mea testa. – The clouds are above my head.
 +  * La teto es **supra** la sofito. – The roof is above the ceiling.
 +  * El ia apoia **supra** la table per ateni la sal. – She leaned over the table to reach the salt.
 +  * Un tempesta enorme developa **supra** la mar. – A huge storm is brewing over the sea.
 +
 +**Supra** implies a gap between the two items. If there is no gap, **[[#​sur|sur]]** is used instead.
 +
 +By extension, **supra** can also indicate anything that physically covers something else, whether it's actually higher or not:
 +
 +  * La montania lansa un ombra **supra** nosa casa. – The mountain casts a shadow over our house.
 +  * El ia porta un covretota **supra** sua otra vestes. – He was wearing overalls on top of his other clothes.
 +
 +**Supra** can also indicate motion to a location above (= **a supra**):
 +
 +  * La sol leva **supra** la tera. – The sun rises over the earth.
 +
 +===== sur =====
 +
 +**Sur** means "​on"​. It indicates a location at the surface of something, either held on top of it by gravity, or fixed to it in some other way:
 +
 +  * Mea xapo es **sur** mea testa. – My hat is on my head.
 +  * No senta **sur** la seja rompeda. – Don't sit on the broken chair.
 +  * Si on sta **sur** la balcon, on vide la mar. – If you stand on the balcony, you can see the sea.
 +  * La asfalto **sur** la strada fonde en la caldia. – The tarmac on the road is melting in the heat.
 +  * Esce la vive esiste **sur** Marte? – Is there life on Mars?
 +  * Me va pende esta depinta **sur** la mur. – I'll hang this painting on the wall.
 +  * La om ia besa la fem **sur** sua jena. – The man kissed the woman on her cheek.
 +
 +**Sur** can also mean "​onto"​ (= **a sur**):
 +
 +  * Pone tua cartas **sur** la table. – Put your cards on the table.
 +  * Un roca cual cade **sur** la tera es nomida un meteorite. – A rock that falls onto the earth is called a meteorite.
 +  * El ia pone un dital **sur** sua dito. – She put a thimble onto her finger.
 +
 +Metaphorically,​ **sur** means "​concerning"​ or "on the subject of":
 +
 +  * La teatral es **sur** la gera. – The play is about the war.
 +  * Me ia leje multe libros **sur** la tema. – I've read many books on the subject.
 +  * La xica plora **sur** sua popa perdeda. – The girl is crying over her lost doll.
 +
 +===== tra =====
 +
 +**Tra** means "​through"​. It indicates a location within which movement occurs, passing from one end to the other:
 +
 +  * Acua flue **tra** la tubos. – Water flows through the pipes.
 +  * La enfantes ia core **tra** la vileta. – The children ran through the village.
 +  * La pluve ia trova un via **tra** mea saco. – The rain has found a way through my bag.
 +  * La tren vade de Milano a Roma **tra** Bologna. – The train goes from Milan to Rome via Bologna.
 +  * Un rueta gida **tra** la campos a la lago. – A lane leads through the fields to the lake.
 +  * Me regarda la stelas **tra** la fenetra abrida. – I look at the stars through the open window.
 +  * Los ia resta juntada **tra** la anios. – They'​ve stayed together through the years.
 +  * El ia senta en un sejon **tra** la note. – He sat in an armchair throughout the night.
 +  * On ia oia la esplode **tra** la site. – The explosion could be heard throughout the city.
 +
 +===== ultra =====
 +
 +**Ultra** means "​beyond"​. It indicates a location on the other side of something:
 +
 +  * La scola es **ultra** la eglesa. – The school is beyond the church.
 +  * **Ultra** la ponte es un vista merveliosa. – (To be seen from) across the bridge is a wonderful view.
 +  * Esta taxe es **ultra** mea capasia. – This task is beyond my talents.
 +
 +It can also indicate movement towards such a location (= **a ultra**):
 +
 +  * La esplorores ia viaja **ultra** la montanias. – The explorers journeyed beyond the mountains.
 +  * Los ia remi un barceta **ultra** la lago. – They rowed a dinghy across the lake.
  
gramatica/en/prepositions.txt · Editada: 2019/11/30 10:44 par Simon