Utiles de conta

Utiles de pajeria



A preposition is a special word that introduces a noun phrase, forming a preposition phrase. A preposition phrase typically modifies a preceding noun, pronoun, adjective, or adverb – or it can modify a whole sentence. The preposition indicates how the noun phrase relates to the containing structure, showing the role it plays in the modification.

LFN has 22 prepositions.


A means “at”. It presents a place or a time as a simple point, or as a general space or period, ignoring its internal structure:

  • Nos senta a la table. – We are sitting at the table.
  • Me va encontra tu a la crus de vias. – I'll meet you at the crossroads.
  • La scala apoia a la mur. – The ladder is leaning on the wall.
  • Tua casa es a lado de mea casa. – Your house is next to mine.
  • El reposa a casa. – He's resting at home.
  • Sudan es a sude de Misre. – Sudan is to the south of Egypt.
  • La barco es a mar. – The ship is at sea.
  • El ia fini la labora a la comensa de la anio. – She finished the work at the start of the year.
  • A medianote, on va vide focos de arte. – At midnight, there will be fireworks.
  • Me debe parti a la ora des-ses. – I have to leave at four o'clock.

By metaphorical extension, a introduces the point of reference in a relationship:

  • Tu sta tro prosima a la borda. – You're standing too close to the edge.
  • La forma de Italia es simil a un gama. – The shape of Italy is similar to a leg.
  • Esta pen parteni a me. – This pen belongs to me.
  • Cual aveni si on no conforma a la regulas? – What happens if you don't conform to the rules?
  • A la min tredes persones espeta. – At least thirty people are waiting.

In addition, a can express movement towards a point. This includes metaphorical movements such as transfers to recipients, and changes into new states:

  • Me viaja a New York. – I am travelling to New York.
  • Pone tua libros a via. – Put your books away.
  • El leva sua oios a la sielo. – He raises his eyes to the sky.
  • El ia dona un oso a la can. – She gave a bone to the dog / She gave the dog a bone.
  • La sorsor ia cambia se a un capra. – The wizard changed himself into a goat.
  • La seja ia cade a pesos. – The chair fell to bits.
  • La xico ia ajunta sua nom a la lista. – The boy added his name to the list.
  • Dise a me tua nom. – Tell me your name.
  • Me no va responde a acel demanda. – I will not answer that question.
  • Nos desira a tu un bon aniversario. – We wish you a happy birthday.
  • Tua idea pare asurda a me. – Your idea seems absurd to me.
  • Me pasea longo la strada, de un fini a la otra. – I walk down the street, from one end to the other.
  • Tu irita me de tempo a tempo. – You annoy me from time to time.
  • La note progresa a la lus prima. – The night is progressing towards dawn.
  • De lundi a jovedi es cuatro dias. – From Monday to Thursday is four days.

In fact, any preposition that indicates a location can also indicate movement towards that location. For example, in me pone mea libros en mea saco (“I put my books in my bag”), en obviously implies motion “into”. When extra clarity is needed, a can be placed before the preposition to clarify the sense of movement towards:

  • Core a la casa. – Run to the house.
  • Core en la casa. – Run in the house.
  • Core a en la casa. – Run into the house.
  • La gato salta sur la table. – The cat jumps on the table.
  • La gato salta a sur la table. – The cat jumps onto the table.

A special use of a is before another preposition, to create an adverb. If the preposition denotes a place, the combination suggests movement in the direction indicated. A ante and a pos are also used to denote earlier or later times:

  • La can core a ante. – The dog runs forward.
  • Tu pote pone tua saco a supra. – You can put your bag overhead.
  • La sumerjor ia vade a su. – The diver went down.
  • Vide a su. – See below.
  • Me ia visita esta vila a ante. – I have visited this town before.
  • Nos pote reveni a pos. – We can return later.

Another special use of a is to add a complement to the object in a sentence. (In some cases, other prepositions can also be used for this purpose.)

  • El ia pinti sua casa a blanca. – He painted his house white.
  • Me va servi la gambas a/en fria. – I will serve the shrimp cold.
  • Los ia eleje Maria a/per presidente. – They elected Maria (as) president.

The complement can be an infinitive. “Per” can be used instead of “a”, but then the meaning is that the subject of the main verb intends to perform the action of the infinitive verb. A indicates that the subject intends the object to do it:

  • El comanda la soldatos a ataca la fortres. – He orders the soldiers to attack the fort.
  • Me va instrui vos a parla la lingua. – I will teach you to speak the language.


Ante means “before” or “in front of”. Its opposite is pos.

In space, ante indicates a location at the more important side of a specified object. Which side is more important depends on the object and its context. Many things have an obvious front side with which they face the world; in other cases ante just means “at the nearer side of”:

  • Mea peto es ante mea dorso. – My chest is in front of my back.
  • La jornales es ante la libros. – The magazines are in front of the books.
  • Lo es tan oscur ce me no pote vide mea mano ante mea oios. – It's so dark that I can't see my hand in front of my eyes.
  • Un can reposa ante la boteca. – A dog is lying in front of the shop.
  • Nos ave multe labora ante nos. – We have a lot of work ahead of us.

In time, ante indicates a point that precedes a specified time:

  • Janero veni ante febrero. – January comes before February.
  • Los intende fini la labora ante la reposa de sol. – They intend to finish work before sunset.
  • Verje a sinistra ante la fini de la strada. – Turn left before the end of the street.
  • Nos esperia la lampo ante la tona. – We experience lightning before thunder.

Ante can also indicate movement to a point in front of something (= a ante):

  • On ia pone un monton de libros ante me. – They put a pile of books in front of me.
  • Me veni ante tu per demanda per tua pardona. – I come before you to apologize.

Ante cuando means “before” as a conjunction (“before the time when”):

  • Nos vide la lampo ante cuando nos oia la tona. – We see lightning before we hear thunder.


Asta means “up to” or “as far as” a specified object or location:

  • El ia acompania me asta mea auto. – She accompanied me to my car.
  • La tera es covreda con neva asta la montania. – The ground is covered in snow as far as the mountains.
  • Me es empapada asta mea pel. – I am soaked to the skin.
  • La preso ia cade asta sola un euro. – The price fell to just one euro.
  • El ia visita cada pais de Andora asta Zambia. – He's visited every country from Andorra to Zambia.
  • Studia pajes dudes-sinco asta cuatrodes-du. – Study pages 25 to 42 (inclusive).

This leads to the temporal sense of asta, which is “until”:

  • El labora asta medianote. – He works until midnight.
  • Espeta asta la estate. – Wait until the summer.
  • Asta doman! – Until tomorrow / See you tomorrow!


Ca means “than”. It indicates the reference point for an inequality comparison:

  • Mea can es plu intelijente ca me. – My dog is more intelligent than me.
  • Acel es multe min interesante ca esta. – That is much less interesting than this.
  • La sielo e tera ave cosas plu ca tu imajina en tua filosofia. – There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in your philosophy.


Como means “as” or “like”. It indicates the reference point for an equality comparison:

  • El rie como un iena. — He laughs like a hyena.
  • Tua cor es dur como petra. – Your heart is hard as stone.
  • Iogurte es como crema. – Yoghurt is like cream.
  • Tu ia veni a la mesma conclui como me. – You've reached the same conclusion as me.
  • Me pote salta tan alta como tu. – I can jump as high as you.
  • Condui como un adulte. – Behave like an adult.


Con means “with”. Its opposite is sin.

It introduces an accompanying person, thing, or state:

  • Me vide la xica con sua padre. – I see the girl with her father.
  • Los vole come con nos. – They want to eat with us.
  • Nos bevi cafe con lete. – We are drinking coffee with milk.
  • On ia misca la zucar con sal. – The sugar has been mixed with salt.
  • Los batalia con la elementos. – They are battling with the elements.
  • No multe parolas comensa con X. – Not many words start with X.
  • El ia dona a me un libro con multe fotos. – She's given me a book with many photos.
  • Elena es un xica con capeles roja. – Elena is a girl with red hair.
  • La om vea senta con un pipa en sua boca. – The old man sits with a pipe in his mouth.
  • Sua sposa regarda el con stona. – His wife looks at him in amazement.
  • Compara esta con la clima de ier. – Compare this with yesterday's weather.
  • Tota cambia con la pasa de tempo. – Everything changes with the passage of time.
  • A cada dia, me leva con la sol. – Every day I get up with the sun.
  • E con acel parolas, el ia desapare. – And with those words he disappeared.

Con can also mean “by means of”, presenting something that is used as a tool:

  • Me scrive con un pen. – I write with a pen.
  • Nos oia con nosa oreas. – We hear with our ears.
  • La cavalo colpa con sua pede. – The horse kicks.
  • El ia compra un casa con la mone cual el ia erita. – He bought a house with the money he inherited.

When an action happens by means of something more abstract or less tool-like, par is preferred.

An con means “despite”:

  • Nos va fali an con tu aida. – We will fail even with your help.


Contra means “against”. It introduces something that faces or moves in the opposite direction, either for real or metaphorically:

  • Clui tua oios contra la lus. – Close your eyes against the light.
  • Esta camera es secur contra acua. – This camera is waterproof.
  • La elinicas antica ia batalia contra Parsa. – The ancient Greeks fought against Persia.
  • La scala es contra la sepe. – The ladder is against the fence.
  • El lisca e cade contra la mur. – He slips and falls against the wall.
  • Nada contra la flue es difisil. – Swimming upstream is hard.
  • Me es contra la gera. – I am against the war.
  • Tu ia ata contra mea desiras. – You have acted against my wishes.


De means “from”. It presents something as an origin:

  • Me es de New York. – I am from New York.
  • Me viaja de Paris a London. – I'm traveling from Paris to London.
  • La paperes ia cade de la fenetra. – The papers fell from the window.
  • Me ia reseta un letera de la re. – I have received a letter from the king.
  • La furor asconde sua fas de la cameras. – The robber hides his face from the cameras.
  • La acua difere de la asida par sua cimica. – Water differs from acid in its chemistry.
  • La resulta depende de la metodo usada. – The result depends on the method used.
  • Nos labora ja de la lus prima. – We've been working since dawn.
  • Multe anios ia pasa de la gera. – Many years have passed since the war.
  • La table es fada de lenio. – The table is made of wood.
  • Tu gusta carne de oveta? – Do you like lamb?

By extension, de introduces the person or thing that something belongs to:

  • Acel es la auto de mea frate. – That is my brother's car.
  • Me gusta escuta la canta de la avias. – I like listening to the singing of the birds.
  • El ia es impresada par la cuietia de la foresta. – She was impressed by the stillness of the forest.
  • Dona un peso de torta a me, per favore. – Give me a piece of cake, please.

More abstractly, de often indicates a general relationship between two things, or between a quality or action and a thing:

  • Me ave tre caxas de libros per vende. – I have three boxes of books to sell.
  • El ia presta a me un tela de un color fea. – She lent me an ugly-colored towel.
  • La tore ave cuatro metres de altia. – The tower is forty metres high.
  • Esta balde es plen de pexes. – This bucket is full of fish.
  • Nos vole es libre de vos. – We want to be free of you.
  • La ora ia veni per parla de multe cosas. – The time has come to talk of many things.

What would be a compound noun in some languages is commonly expressed as two nouns joined by de in LFN:

  • Mea oculo de sol es rompeda. – My sunglasses are broken.
  • La gavota es un avia de mar. – The seagull is a seabird.
  • Esta va es tua sala de dormi. – This will be your bedroom.
  • Tu ia oblida aplica la freno de mano. – You forgot to apply the handbrake.
  • Per sua come de matina, el bevi sola cafe. – For his breakfast, he just drinks coffee.
  • El es la campion de mundo de tenis de table – He is the world table-tennis champion.

De occurs as the second element in a number of fixed expressions that function as complex prepositions:

  • Los ia ajunta tota ingredientes con eseta de la sal. – They added all the ingredients except the salt.
  • Los ia usa zucar en loca de sal. – They used sugar instead of salt.
  • Me es tarda par causa de un conjesta de trafica. – I'm late because of a traffic jam.
  • La campaneria es a destra de la catedral. – The belltower is to the right of the cathedral.

De can be placed before another preposition to indicate motion away from:

  • La gato salta de sur la seja. – The cat jumps off the chair.
  • Un arania rampe de pos la orolojo. – A spider creeps from behind the clock.
  • La pasaros asende de entre la arbores. – The sparrows climb from among the trees.

Like a, de can convert a preposition to an adverb. The adverb means “from the location suggested by the context”:

  • La monstro ia veni de su. – The monster came from below.
  • La gidor ia cria de ante, ma me no ia pote oia. – The leader was shouting from the front, but I couldn't hear.

De cuando means “since” as a conjunction (“from the time when”):

  • De cuando me ia es un enfante, me desira sta sur la luna. – Since I was a child, I've wanted to stand on the moon.


En means “in”. Its opposite is estra.

It indicates a location in space or time that is wholly or partly contained in something else:

  • Mea cor es en mea peto. – My heart is in my chest.
  • La sol es en la sielo. – The sun is in the sky.
  • Nos espeta en la auto. – We are waiting in the car.
  • La plantas es en vasos. – The plants are in pots.
  • Sua ditos es fisada en la manico de un tas. – His fingers are stuck in the handle of a cup.
  • Me ave alga pensas en mea mente. – I have some thoughts in my mind.
  • Gatos no gusta es en acua. – Cats don't like being in water.
  • Nos no vide la stelas en la dia. – We don't see the stars in the day.
  • Beethoven ia nase en 1770. – Beethoven was born in 1770.
  • Nos ia visita la museo en febrero. – We visited the museum in February.
  • El ia scrive la libro en tre semanas. – She wrote the book in three weeks.

Metaphorically, the location can be a state, or an activity, or a manner:

  • Me no vole viaja en esta clima. – I don't want to travel in this weather.
  • La construida es en foco. – The building is on fire.
  • Nos es en peril. – We are in danger.
  • Esce nos es en acorda? – Are we in agreement?
  • En ajunta, me vide un problem nova. – In addition, I see a new problem.
  • En fato, me vide du problemes. – In fact I see two problems.
  • Nos ia pasa un ora en conversa. – We spent an hour in conversation.
  • La enfantes senta en un sirculo. – The children are sitting in a circle.
  • Me va repete esta en elinica. – I will repeat this in Greek.
  • La presos es en euros. – The prices are in euros.

En can also mean “into” (= a en):

  • El ia cade en la rio. – He fell into the river.
  • Pone la dejeto en la baldon. – Put the rubbish in the bin.
  • Un bon idea ia veni en sua testa. – A good idea came into her head.
  • Me ia tradui la article en franses. – I've translated the article into French.
  • Nos pasa en un eda nova. – We are passing into a new era.

En cuando means “while”, “at a point during the time when”:

  • Lo ia comensa pluve forte en cuando la reportor ia parla. – It started raining heavily while the reporter was talking.


Entre means “between”. It indicates that one place or time is surrounded by two or more others:

  • Mea testa es entre mea oreas. – My head is between my ears.
  • La table es entre la seja e la mur. – The table is between the chair and the wall.
  • Txesco es entre Deutxland, Osteraic, Slovenia, e Polsca. – The Czech Republic is between Germany, Austria, Slovenia, and Poland.
  • El viaja entre Paris e Madrid a cada semana. – She travels between Paris and Madrid every week.
  • Tu es entre amis asi. – You are among friends here.
  • La bal ia cade entre la flores. – The ball fell among the flowers.
  • Cual es la difere entre un mur e un sepe? – What is the difference between a wall and a fence?
  • Elefen promove comunica entre poplas. – LFN promotes communication between peoples.
  • On va ave un interval de des minutos entre la du atas. – There will be a ten-minute interval between the two acts.
  • El ia nase entre la geras. – He was born between the wars.
  • Me velia usual entre sete e oto. – I usually wake up between seven and eight.
  • On debe paia entre des e dudes euros. – You have to pay between ten and twenty euros.


Estra means “outside”. Its opposite is en.

It indicates a location that is not contained in something else:

  • Mea sapato es estra mea calseta. – My shoe is outside my sock.
  • El abita estra la site. – She lives outside the city.
  • On no ave aira estra la barcon. – There is no air outside the ship.
  • Tu es aora estra peril. – You are out of danger now.
  • No telefoni estra la oras de labora. – Don't phone outside work hours.

Estra can also indicate movement towards such a location (= a estra):

  • La enfantes core estra la casa. – The children ran outside the house.

Metaphorically, estra can mean “except for”:

  • El recorda no cosa estra sua nom. – He remembers nothing except for his name.


Longo means “along”. It indicates the route that something follows as it moves:

  • Me pasea longo la strada. – I walk along the street.
  • La balsa ia flota longo la rio. – The raft floated down the river.
  • La xico lisca longo la ramo. – The boy slides along the branch.
  • Un arania rampe longo mea gama. – There's a spider crawling up my leg.

By extension, it can also mean “according to” what someone has said or written:

  • Longo la predise, oji va es an plu calda. – According to the forecast, tomorrow will be even warmer.
  • La viaja tra tempo es posible, longo esta fisiciste. – Time travel is possible, according to this physicist.


Par means “by”. It indicates the agent of a passive verb, or the author of a creation:

  • El ia es colpada par un bal de neva. – He was hit by a snowball.
  • Me es surprendeda par tua reata. – I am surprised by your reaction.
  • Suiz es ensircada par otra paises. – Switzerland is surrounded by other countries.
  • Hamlet es un teatral par Shakespeare. – Hamlet is a play by Shakespeare.

By extension, it also indicates an action or method by which something is done:

  • Me ia viaja asi par tren. – I travelled here by train.
  • Roberto es mea fio par sposi. – Roberto is my son-in-law.
  • La botelas es codigida par color. – The bottles are color-coded.
  • Nos ia descovre tua secretas par nos spiores. – We discovered your secrets via our spies.
  • La prisonida ia evade par desembla se como un porte. – The prisoner escaped by disguising himself as a door.
  • Me va destrui la sepe par sola un colpa de pede. – I shall destroy the fence with a single kick.
  • On no pote solve esta problem par negosia. – This problem cannot be solved by negotiation.

When a transitive verb is converted into a noun, and the verb's subject and object are of a similar nature (e.g. they're both people), par is used to indicate the subject and de or a to indicate the object:

  • La ama par la madre. – The mother's love. (The mother loves)
  • La ama de/a la madre. – The love of/for the mother. (The mother is loved)
  • La ataca de la troianes par la elinicas. – The attack of/on the Trojans by the Greeks. (The Greeks attack the Trojans)


Per means “for”. It introduces an intended goal or recipient:

  • Nos labora per mone. – We work for money.
  • Tases es usada per bevi. – Cups are used for drinking.
  • Me viaja per vide la mundo. – I'm travelling (in order) to see the world.
  • Tu es vestida per un sera de dansa. – You're dressed for an evening of dancing.
  • Me va vade a la botecas per tu. – I will go to the shops for you.
  • El ia scrive la libro per sua madre. – She wrote the book for her mother.
  • La viaja va es perilosa per tu. – The journey will be dangerous for you.
  • Me batalia per mea vive. – I'm fighting for my life.
  • Per esta razona, me no pote parla longa. – For that reason, I can't talk for long.
  • Per esemplo, considera la balena. – For example, consider the whale.

By extension, it also indicates an item exchanged for another:

  • Tu ia paia tro per acel computador. – You paid too much for that computer.
  • Me ia compra lo per mil euros. – I bought it for a thousand euros.
  • Grasias per tua carta postal. – Thank you for your postcard.

It can indicate an intended period of time:

  • Nos vade a Colorado per un semana. – We are going to Colorado for a week.
  • Me no va retarda tu per plu ca un minuto. – I won't delay you for more than a minute.

As a special case, per introduces something that is favoured or represented:

  • Me ia vota per la proposa, ma tu ia vota contra lo. – I voted for the proposal, but you voted against it.
  • Car tu no ia es ala, me ia parla per tu. – Because you weren't there, I spoke on your behalf.


Pos means “after” or “behind”. Its opposite is ante.

In space, it indicates a location at the less important side of a specified object:

  • Mea dorso es pos mea peto. – My back is behind my chest.
  • La aparatos es pos un porte securida. – The equipment is behind a locked door.
  • La xicos turbosa ia asconde pos la cabana. – The naughty boys hid behind the shed.

In time, pos indicates a point that follows a specified time:

  • Desembre veni pos novembre. – December comes after November.
  • Los va comensa bevi pos la reposa de sol. – They will start drinking after sunset.
  • Verje a destra pos la eglesa. – Turn right after the church.
  • Me va reveni pos tre dias. – I will come back in three days.

Pos can also indicate movement to a point behind something (= a pos):

  • La serpente ia desapare pos la arbor. – The snake disappeared behind the tree.

Pos cuando means “after” as a conjunction (“after the time when”):

  • Nos oia la tona pos cuando nos vide la lampo. – We hear thunder after we see lightning.


Sin means “without”. It indicates something that is absent:

  • Tua sposa gusta sua cafe sin lete. – Your wife likes her coffee without milk.
  • Me ia pasea tra la pluve sin parapluve. – I walked through the rain with no umbrella.
  • On ave no fuma sin foco. – There's no smoke without fire.
  • Me va decora la casa intera sin aida. – I shall decorate the entire house without help.
  • Tu es tota sin compatia. – You are totally without mercy.
  • El ia adormi sin intende. – He fell asleep without meaning to.
  • La rexercor ia sorti sin descovre la responde. – The researcher left without discovering the answer.
  • La depinta ia cade sin causa evidente. – The painting fell down for no apparent reason.


Sirca means “around”. It indicates a position that surrounds or encloses something else:

  • La campores fa cantas sirca la foco. – The campers sing songs around the fire.
  • Mea mano es cluida sirca mea diton. – My hand is closed around my thumb.
  • Edera crese sirca la tronco. – Ivy grows around the trunk.
  • On ave pinta verde sirca la fenetras. – There is green paint around the windows.

It can also indicate movement along a surrounding path:

  • La luna vade sirca la tera, e la tera vade sirca la sol. – The moon goes around the earth, and the earth goes around the sun.
  • Nos intende viaja sirca la mundo par cavalo. – We intend to travel round the world on horseback.
  • El vaga sirca la jardin e ole la flores. – She wanders round the garden and smells the flowers.

With expressions of time and quantity, sirca indicates that the value is approximate – the actual value is somewhere in the surrounding range:

  • Me ave sirca sincodes anios. – I am about 50 years old.
  • Me pote pensa a sirca sento razonas per no revela mea eda. – I can think of about a hundred reasons not to reveal my age.
  • La conserta ia comensa sirca dui pos dudes. – The concert began at about half past eight.
  • Sirca la lus prima, me ia oia tua can abaiante. – Around dawn, I heard your dog barking.


Su means “under”. It indicates a location that is lower than another, either physically or metaphorically:

  • La neva craci su mea pedes. – The snow crunches under my feet.
  • La solo es su la sofito. – The floor is below the ceiling.
  • Antilopes ia reposa su la arbores. – Antelopes were resting under the trees.
  • Ave un table de sanduixes su la fenetra. – There's a table of sandwiches under the window.
  • Tu pare es su la influe de la vino. – You appear to be under the influence of the wine.
  • Me no pote labora su tua regulas. – I can't work under your rules.

By extension, su can also indicate any location that is physically covered by something, whether it's actually lower or not:

  • La color vera de la sofito es apena vidable su esta pinta fea. – The real color of the ceiling is scarcely visible under this nasty paint.
  • Me ave un paceta su mea braso. – I have a parcel under my arm.
  • El ia porta un sueter su sua jaca. – He wore a sweater under his jacket.

Su can also indicate motion to a location below something (= a su):

  • La acua ia vade su la mobilas. – The water went under the furniture.


Supra means “above”. It indicates a location that is higher than another, either physically or metaphorically:

  • La nubes es supra mea testa. – The clouds are above my head.
  • La teto es supra la sofito. – The roof is above the ceiling.
  • El ia apoia supra la table per ateni la sal. – She leaned over the table to reach the salt.
  • Un tempesta enorme developa supra la mar. – A huge storm is brewing over the sea.

Supra implies a gap between the two items. If there is no gap, sur is used instead.

By extension, supra can also indicate anything that physically covers something else, whether it's actually higher or not:

  • La montania lansa un ombra supra nosa casa. – The mountain casts a shadow over our house.
  • El ia porta un covretota supra sua otra vestes. – He was wearing overalls on top of his other clothes.

Supra can also indicate motion to a location above (= a supra):

  • La sol leva supra la tera. – The sun rises over the earth.


Sur means “on”. It indicates a location at the surface of something, either held on top of it by gravity, or fixed to it in some other way:

  • Mea xapo es sur mea testa. – My hat is on my head.
  • No senta sur la seja rompeda. – Don't sit on the broken chair.
  • Si on sta sur la balcon, on vide la mar. – If you stand on the balcony, you can see the sea.
  • La asfalto sur la strada fonde en la caldia. – The tarmac on the road is melting in the heat.
  • Esce la vive esiste sur Marte? – Is there life on Mars?
  • Me va pende esta depinta sur la mur. – I'll hang this painting on the wall.
  • La om ia besa la fem sur sua jena. – The man kissed the woman on her cheek.

Sur can also mean “onto” (= a sur):

  • Pone tua cartas sur la table. – Put your cards on the table.
  • Un roca cual cade sur la tera es nomida un meteorite. – A rock that falls onto the earth is called a meteorite.
  • El ia pone un dital sur sua dito. – She put a thimble onto her finger.

Metaphorically, sur means “concerning” or “on the subject of”:

  • La teatral es sur la gera. – The play is about the war.
  • Me ia leje multe libros sur la tema. – I've read many books on the subject.
  • La xica plora sur sua popa perdeda. – The girl is crying over her lost doll.


Tra means “through”. It indicates a location within which movement occurs, passing from one end to the other:

  • Acua flue tra la tubos. – Water flows through the pipes.
  • La enfantes ia core tra la vileta. – The children ran through the village.
  • La pluve ia trova un via tra mea saco. – The rain has found a way through my bag.
  • La tren vade de Milano a Roma tra Bologna. – The train goes from Milan to Rome via Bologna.
  • Un rueta gida tra la campos a la lago. – A lane leads through the fields to the lake.
  • Me regarda la stelas tra la fenetra abrida. – I look at the stars through the open window.
  • Los ia resta juntada tra la anios. – They've stayed together through the years.
  • El ia senta en un sejon tra la note. – He sat in an armchair throughout the night.
  • On ia oia la esplode tra la site. – The explosion could be heard throughout the city.


Ultra means “beyond”. It indicates a location on the other side of something:

  • La scola es ultra la eglesa. – The school is beyond the church.
  • Ultra la ponte es un vista merveliosa. – (To be seen from) across the bridge is a wonderful view.
  • Esta taxe es ultra mea capasia. – This task is beyond my talents.

It can also indicate movement towards such a location (= a ultra):

  • La esplorores ia viaja ultra la montanias. – The explorers journeyed beyond the mountains.
  • Los ia remi un barceta ultra la lago. – They rowed a dinghy across the lake.
gramatica/en/prepositions.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:46 par Simon