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gramatica:en:numbers

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gramatica:en:numbers [2019/07/14 12:17]
Simon
gramatica:en:numbers [2019/08/10 11:48] (corente)
Simon
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 +{{page>​naviga}}
 +
 +====== Numbers ======
 +
 +===== Cardinal numbers =====
 +
 +The basic cardinal numbers are:
 +
 +  * **zero** – zero
 +  * **un** – one
 +  * **du** – two
 +  * **tre** – three
 +  * **cuatro** – four
 +  * **sinco** – five
 +  * **ses** – six
 +  * **sete** – seven
 +  * **oto** – eight
 +  * **nove** – nine
 +  * **des** – ten
 +  * **sento** – hundred
 +  * **mil** – thousand
 +  * **milion** – million
 +
 +Numbers up to 999 are written as single words containing up to three components, hyphenated together. Each component represents a digit, and consists of a cardinal number between **un** and **nove**, with **des** or **sento** appended if the digit represents a multiple of ten or a hundred. Single multiples of ten and a hundred are expressed as just **des** and **sento**, with no mention of **un**. The components for zero multiples (such as the "​0"​ in "​209"​) are omitted entirely.
 +
 +  * **des-un** – 11
 +  * **des-du** – 12
 +  * **des-nove** – 19
 +  * **dudes** – 20
 +  * **dudes-un** – 21
 +  * **dudes-sinco** – 25
 +  * **sento-un** – 101
 +  * **sento-des-du** – 112
 +  * **tresento-dudes-un** – 321
 +  * **cuatrosento** – 400
 +  * **novesento-sinco** – 905
 +
 +**Mil** and **milion** are always written as standalone words, separating each group of three digits:
 +
 +  * **mil setesento-sesdes-tre** – 1763
 +  * **du mil un** – 2001
 +  * **tre mil des-cuatro** – 3014
 +  * **cuatrodes-sinco mil sessento-setedes-oto** – 45(~)678
 +  * **novesento-otodes-sete milion sessento-sincodes-cuatro mil tresento-dudes-un balones roja** – 987(~)654(~)321 red balloons
 +
 +When writing numbers in digits, Elefen uses a space between each group of three digits, as shown above. The decimal point is written as either a period (a dot) or a comma, according to preference, and likewise pronounced as either **punto** or **virgula**. Digits following the decimal point are simply listed:
 +
 +  * **tre punto un cuatro un ses** – 3.1416
 +  * **du virgula zero nove** – 2,09
 +
 +Negative numbers are expressed with **min**:
 +
 +  * **min sinco grados** – minus five degrees
 +
 +===== Thousands of millions =====
 +
 +The word "​billion"​ can mean either a thousand million or a million million, depending on culture. Similar problems affect "​trillion",​ "​quadrillion",​ etc. To avoid confusion, Elefen prefers to spell such numbers out explicitly:
 +
 +  * **mil milion** –  1(~)000(~)000(~)000 (one with nine zeroes, 10⁹)
 +  * **milion milion** – 1(~)000(~)000(~)000(~)000 (10¹²)
 +  * **mil milion milion** – 1(~)000(~)000(~)000(~)000(~)000 (10¹⁵)
 +
 +The words **bilion**, **trilion**,​ **cuadrilion**,​ etc do exist in Elefen, but a speaker who uses them should take care to clarify the meaning.
 +
 +In scientific writing, the clearest option is to use the international prefixes:
 +
 +  * **deca-** (da) – 10
 +  * **hecto-** (h) – 100
 +  * **cilo-** (k) – 10³
 +  * **giga-** – 10⁹
 +  * **tera-** – 10¹²
 +  * **peta-** – 10¹⁵
 +  * **exa-** – 10¹⁸
 +  * **zeta-** – 10²¹
 +  * **iota-** – 10²⁴
 +
 +===== Ordinal numbers =====
 +
 +When a number //​precedes//​ a noun, it is a cardinal number, indicating a quantity:
 +
 +  * **tre** omes e **cuatro** femes – three men and four women
 +
 +But when a number //follows// a noun, it is an ordinal number, indicating a position in a sequence:
 +
 +  * la **om tre** – the third man
 +  * la **pato ses** – the sixth duck
 +  * la **paje un** – the first page, page one
 +
 +**Prima** is a common alternative to ordinal **un**, but it can't be used for higher ordinals that happen to end in "​1":​
 +
 +  * la **paje prima** – the first page
 +  * sala **sento-un** – room 101
 +
 +**Numero** can be used as a dummy noun to support an ordinal number:
 +
 +  * El es **numero tre**. –  He is number three / He is third.
 +  * A cual paje tu es? Me es a **numero setedes**. – What page are you on? I'm on number seventy.
 +  * **Numero tre**, me vole grasia la furnores de come. – Thirdly, I want to thank the caterers.
 +
 +===== Fractions =====
 +
 +One use of the suffix **-i** is to form words for fractional numbers:
 +
 +  * **dui** – half
 +  * **tri** – third
 +  * **cuatri** – quarter, fourth
 +  * **desi** – tenth
 +  * **des-dui** – twelfth
 +  * **cuatrodesi** – fortieth
 +  * **senti** – hundredth
 +  * **tresento-sesdes-sinci** – 1/365
 +  * **mili** – 1/1000
 +  * **dudes-mili** – 1/20 000
 +
 +Fractions follow the rules for ordinary [[nouns|nouns]]:​
 +
 +  * **un tri** de la tarte – a third of the pie
 +  * **du tris** de la tarte – two thirds of the pie
 +  * **esta tri ardeda** de la tarte – this burnt third of the pie
 +  * **un cuatri** de un sentenio – a quarter century
 +  * **tre tredes-duis** de un diton – three thirty-seconds of an inch
 +
 +There are also other way to express fractions:
 +
 +  * **tre e un dui** oras – three and a half hours
 +  * tre oras e **un dui** – three hours and a half
 +  * **sete e un dui** milion anios – seven and a half million years
 +  * **des persentos** de la popla = ten percent of the people
 +  * **des sentis** de la popla = ten percent of the people
 +  * **du punto sete sinco oto** metres = 2.758 meters
 +
 +For scientific writing, international prefixes are available:
 +
 +  * **desi-** (d) – 1/10
 +  * **senti-** (c) – 1/100
 +  * **mili-** (m) – 10⁻³
 +  * **micro-** (μ) – 10⁻⁶
 +  * **nano-** (n) – 10⁻⁹
 +  * **pico-** (p) – 10⁻¹²
 +  * **femto-** (f) – 10⁻¹⁵
 +  * **ato-** (a) – 10⁻¹⁸
 +  * **zepto-** (z) – 10⁻²¹
 +  * **iocto** (y) – 10⁻²⁴
 +
 +===== Multiples =====
 +
 +The suffix **-uple** forms words for numeric multiples:
 +
 +  * **duple** – double, duo, pair, couple
 +  * **truple** – triple, trio
 +  * **cuatruple** – quadruple
 +
 +Phrases with **ves** or **veses** express how many times something happens:
 +
 +  * **a un ves** – once, one time
 +  * **a du veses** – twice, two times
 +  * **a tre veses** – thrice, three times
 +
 +**Ves** does not express [[#​arithmetic|arithmetic multiplication]].
 +
 +===== Arithmetic =====
 +
 +Addition is expressed with **plu** or **e**:
 +
 +  * Un **plu** un es du. – One plus one is two.
 +  * Du **e** du no es sinco. – Two and two are not five.
 +
 +Subtraction is expressed with **min**:
 +
 +  * Ses **min** tre es tre. – Six minus three is three.
 +
 +Multiplication is expressed with **multiplida par**, often simplified to just **par**:
 +
 +  * Du **multiplida par** tre es ses. – Two multiplied by three equals six.
 +  * Ses **par** cuatro es dudes-cuatro. – Six times four is twenty-four.
 +
 +Division is expressed with **divideda entre**, often simplified to just **entre**:
 +
 +  * Des **divideda entre** du es sinco. – Ten divided by two is five.
 +  * Sinco **entre** du es du e un dui. – Five over two is two and a half.
 +  * Sinco **entre** du es du punto sinco. – Five over two is 2.5.
 +  * Sinco **entre** du es du virgula sinco. – Five over two is 2,5.
 +
 +Powers are expressed with **a potia** and an ordinal number. **Cuadrida** and **cubida** are alternatives for "​squared"​ and "​cubed":​
 +
 +  * Tre **a potia du** es nove. – Three to the power of two is nine.
 +  * Tre **cubida** es dudes-sete. – Three cubed is twenty-seven.
 +  * des **a potia min nove** – 10⁻⁹
 +  * des **a potia sento** – 10¹⁰⁰
 +
 +Roots are expressed with **a radis** and an ordinal number:
 +
 +  * 256 **a radis cuatro** es 4. – The fourth root of 256 is 4.
 +  * La **radis cuadral** de 64 es 8. – The square root of 64 is 8.
 +  * La **radis cubo** de 27 es 3. – The cube root of 27 is 3.
 +
 +===== Measurements =====
 +
 +Physical measurements can be expressed in a variety of ways:
 +
 +  * **Cuanto alta es** la tore? – How high is the tower?
 +  * **Cuanto de altia** la tore ave? – How much height does the tower have?
 +  * La tore **es cuanto alta**? – The tower is how high?
 +  * La tore **ave cuanto de altia**? – The tower has how much height?
 +  * La tore **es 40 metres alta**. – The tower is 40 meters high.
 +  * La tore **ave 40 metres de altia**. – The tower has a height of 40 meters / The tower is 40 meters in height.
 +  * La tore **es un metre plu alta ca** la casa. – The tower is one meter higher than the house.
 +  * La tore **ave un metre plu de altia ca** la casa. – The tower has a height one meter more than the house.
 +  * La tore **es du veses plu alta ca** la casa. – The tower is two times higher than the house.
 +  * La tore **ave du de la altia de** la casa. – The tower has two times the height of the house.
 +  * La casa **ave un dui de la altia de** la tore. – The house has half the height of the tower.
 +  * La tore **es duple plu alta ca** la casa. – The tower is twice as high as the house.
 +  * La tore **ave duple la altia de** la casa. – The tower has double the height of the house.
 +
 +A basic principle is that one //has// height (**ave altia**) but //is// high (**es alta**).
 +
 +**40 metres alta** literally means "40 high meters"​ (i.e. the meters themselves are high), but by natural extension it comes to mean "40 meters in height"​.
 +
 +The same options apply to other measurements,​ such as:
 +
 +  * **larga**, **largia**
 +  * **grande**, **grandia**
 +  * **pesosa**, **pesa**
 +  * **longa**, **longia**
 +  * **longa**, **tempo**
 +  * **vea**, **eda**
 +  * **basa**, **basia**
 +  * **profunda**,​ **profundia**
 +  * **frecuente**,​ **frecuentia**
 +  * **rapida**, **rapidia**
 +  * **densa**, **densia**
  
gramatica/en/numbers.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:48 par Simon