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gramatica:en:nouns [2019/07/14 10:06]
Simon creada
gramatica:en:nouns [2019/08/10 11:44] (corente)
Simon
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 +
 +====== Nouns ======
 +
 +A **noun** is typically introduced by [[determiners]],​ and may be followed by [[adjectives]] and [[prepositions|prepositional phrases]], producing a [[#​noun_phrases|noun phrase]]. Typical nouns denote physical objects such as people, places, and things, but nouns can also denote more abstract concepts that are grammatically similar.
 +
 +===== Plural =====
 +
 +Adding **-s** to a noun makes it plural. If the singular noun ends in a consonant, **-es** is added instead. The plural ending does not affect the word's [[spelling_and_pronunciation#​stress|stress]]:​
 +
 +  * **g__a__to**,​ **g__a__tos** – cat, cats
 +  * **__o__m**, **__o__mes** – man, men
 +
 +[[Adjectives]] modifying a noun do not change when the noun is plural. But when an adjective is used as a noun, it can be pluralized:
 +
 +  * **la bones, la males, e la feas** – the good, the bad, and the ugly
 +  * **multe belas** – many beauties
 +
 +Some nouns that are plural in English are singular in Elefen:
 +
 +  * El regarda un **sisor** con un **binoculo**. – He's looking at a pair of scissors through [a pair of] binoculars.
 +  * On usa un **bretela** per suporta sua **pantalon**. – You use suspenders to hold up your pants //(US)//; you use braces to hold up your trousers //(Br)//.
 +  * Me ia compra esta **oculo** de sol en **Nederland**. – I bought these sunglasses in the Netherlands.
 +
 +===== Countable and uncountable nouns =====
 +
 +Like many languages, Elefen distinguishes **countable** and **uncountable** nouns. A countable noun (or "count noun") can be modified by a [[numbers|number]],​ and can accept the plural **-s**. Typical countable nouns represent objects that are clearly individual entities, such as houses, cats, and thoughts. For example:
 +
 +  * **un** auto; la auto**s**; **cuatro** auto**s** – a car; the cars; four cars
 +  * **un** gato; multe gato**s**; **un milion** gato**s** – a cat; many cats; a million cats
 +
 +By contrast, uncountable nouns (sometimes called "mass nouns"​) do not normally accept the plural **-s**. Uncountable nouns typically denote masses that have no clear individuality,​ such as liquids (water, juice), powders (sugar, sand), substances (metal, wood), or abstract qualities (elegance, slowness). When they are modified by a number or other quantity word, a unit of measure is often added for clarity. For example:
 +
 +  * la acua; alga acua; **tre tases de** acua – the water; some water; three cups of water
 +  * lenio; multe lenio; **du pesos de** lenio – wood; a lot of wood; two pieces of wood
 +
 +However, uncountable nouns can be used in a countable manner. They then denote particular examples or instances:
 +
 +  * Du **cafes**, per favore. – Two coffees, please.
 +  * Me ia proba multe **cesos**. – I've tasted many cheeses.
 +  * On no pote compara la **belias** de Paris e Venezia. – You can't compare the beauties of Paris and Venice.
 +
 +===== Gender =====
 +
 +Nouns do not normally indicate their gender. To distinguish the sexes, the adjectives **mas** and **fema** are used:
 +
 +  * **un cavalo mas** – a male horse, a stallion
 +  * **un cavalo fema** – a female horse, a mare
 +
 +But there are a few words for family relations that mark females with **-a** and males with **-o**:
 +
 +  * **ava**, **avo** – grandmother,​ grandfather
 +  * **fia**, **fio** – daughter, son
 +  * **neta**, **neto** – granddaughter,​ grandson
 +  * **sobrina**,​ **sobrino** – niece, nephew
 +  * **sposa**, **sposo** – wife, husband
 +  * **tia**, **tio** – aunt, uncle
 +  * **xica**, **xico** – girl, boy
 +
 +There are also a few pairs that use different words for the two sexes:
 +
 +  * **dama**, **cavalor** – dame, knight
 +  * **diva**, **dio** – goddess, god
 +  * **fem**, **om** – woman, man
 +  * **madre**, **padre** – mother, father
 +  * **rea**, **re** – queen, king
 +  * **seniora**,​ **senior** – lady, Mrs; gentleman, Mr
 +  * **sore**, **frate** – sister, brother
 +
 +The rare suffix **-esa** forms the female variants of a few historical social roles:
 +
 +  * **abade**, **abadesa** – abbot, abbess
 +  * **baron**, **baronesa** – baron, baroness
 +  * **conte**, **contesa** – count, countess
 +  * **duxe**, **duxesa** – duke, duchess
 +  * **imperor**,​ **imperoresa** – emperor, empress
 +  * **marci**, **marcesa** – marquess, marchioness
 +  * **prinse**, **prinsesa** – prince, princess
 +  * **tsar**, **tsaresa** – czar, czarina
 +
 +===== Noun phrases =====
 +
 +A noun phrase consists of a noun and its modifiers: [[determiners]],​ which precede the noun, and [[adjectives]] and [[prepositions|prepositional phrases]], which follow it.
 +
 +The two most important noun phrases in a [[sentences|sentence]] are the **subject** and the **object**. The subject precedes the verb, and the object follows the verb. Other noun phrases are normally introduced by [[prepositions]] to clarify their function.
 +
 +A noun phrase must normally contain a determiner – perhaps just the plural marker **-s**. But this rule does not apply to proper nouns, to the names of weekdays, months, and languages, and to uncountable nouns:
 +
 +  * **Desembre** es calda en **Australia**. – December is warm in Australia.
 +  * **Nederlandes** es me lingua orijinal. – Dutch is my original language.
 +  * Me gusta **pan**. – I like bread.
 +
 +The rule is also often relaxed when the noun phrase follows a preposition,​ particularly in fixed expressions:​
 +
 +  * El es la comandor **de polisia**. – He is the chief of police.
 +  * Me no gusta come **bur de aracide**. – I don't like eating peanut butter.
 +  * Nos vade **a scola**. – We are going to school.
 +  * Acel es un problem **sin solve** en matematica. – That is an unsolved problem in mathematics.
 +  * Un virgula pare nesesada **per claria**. – A comma seems necessary for clarity.
 +
 +An adjective or determiner can be modified by a preceding [[adverbs|adverb]]. Because adverbs look like adjectives, multiple adjectives are normally separated by commas or **e**. In speech, intonation makes the difference clear:
 +
 +  * **Sola un** poma **multe putrida** ia resta. – Only a very rotten apple remained.
 +  * Me ia encontra un fem **bela intelijente**. – I met a beautifully intelligent woman.
 +  * Me ia encontra un fem **bela, joven, e intelijente**. – I met a beautiful, young, and intelligent woman.
 +
 +Sometimes a noun is just a token for any member of its class. In such cases, it makes little difference whether **la** or **un** is used, or whether the noun is plural or singular:
 +
 +  * **La arpa** es un strumento musical. – The harp is a musical instrument.
 +  * **Un arpa** es un strumento musical. – A harp is a musical instrument.
 +  * **Arpas** es strumentos musical. – Harps are musical instruments.
 +
 +A [[pronouns|pronoun]] is a special case of a noun phrase. Pronouns cannot normally be modified.
 +
 +===== Apposition =====
 +
 +Two noun phrases are said to be in **apposition** when one directly follows the other and both refer to the same entity. In most cases, the second phrase //​identifies//​ the entity:
 +
 +  * la rio **Amazon** – the Amazon River
 +  * la mar **Pasifica** – the Pacific Ocean
 +  * la isola **Skye** – the Isle of Skye
 +  * la Universia **Harvard** – Harvard University
 +  * la Funda **Ford** – the Ford Foundation
 +  * Re **George 5** – King George V
 +  * San **Jacobo major** – St. James the Elder
 +  * Piotr **la grande** – Peter the Great
 +  * me ami **Simon** – my friend Simon
 +  * la parola **"​inverno"​** – the word "​inverno"​
 +  * la libro **//La prinse peti//** – the book //The Little Prince//
 +  * un arbor **eucalipto** – a eucalyptus tree
 +
 +Acronyms and single letters can directly follow a noun to modify it:
 +
 +  * La disionario es ance disponable como un fix **PDF**. – The dictionary is also available as a PDF file.
 +  * El ia porta un camisa **T** blu de escota **V**. – She was wearing a blue V-necked T-shirt.
 +
 +Occasionally,​ two nouns apply equally to an object or person. In these cases, the nouns are joined by a hyphen:
 +
 +  * un produor-dirijor – a producer-director
 +  * un primador-scanador – a printer-scanner
 +
 +In all cases, the plural **-s** or **-es** is applied to both nouns:
 +
 +  * la statos membros – the member states
 +  * produores-dirijores – producer-directors
 +
 +A special case involves the verb **nomi** (name):
 +
 +  * Nos ia nomi el **Orion**. – We named him Orion.
 +  * Me nomi esta forma **un obelisce**. — I call this shape an obelisk.
  
gramatica/en/nouns.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:44 par Simon