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gramatica:en:determiners [2019/07/15 14:16]
Simon [Similarity determiners]
gramatica:en:determiners [2019/08/10 11:45] (corente)
Simon
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 +
 +====== Determiners ======
 +
 +A **determiner** is a word that modifies a [[nouns|noun]] to express the noun's reference, including its identity and quantity. Apart from the plural marker **-s** (which is considered a determiner in Elefen), the determiners always precede the noun.
 +
 +There are several different classes of determiner. Typical examples of each class are: **[[#​predeterminers|tota]]**,​ **[[#​articles|la]]**,​ **[[#​demonstratives|esta]]**,​ **[[#​interrogatives|cual]]**,​ **[[#​selection_determiners|cada]]**,​ **[[#​possessives|mea]]**,​ **[[#​quantifiers|multe]]**,​ **[[#​similarity_determiners|otra]]**.
 +
 +===== Predeterminers =====
 +
 +**Tota** means "​all"​. It indicates the entire quantity of the noun's referent, which must be plural if countable. Unlike **[[#​quantifiers|cada]]**,​ **tota** refers to the whole thing, rather than the separate individuals that comprise it:
 +
 +  * **Tota linguas** es asurda. – All languages are absurd. ​
 +  * Me va ama tu per **tota tempo**. – I will love you for all time / the whole of time.
 +  * La lete ia vade a **tota locas**. – The milk went everywhere.
 +
 +**Ambos** means "​both"​. It can be used in place of **tota** when the entire quantity is known to be only two. The noun must be plural:
 +
 +  * **Ambos gamas** es debil. – Both legs are weak.
 +
 +Semantically,​ **tota** and **ambos** are no different from [[#​quantifiers|quantifiers]],​ but they are treated as a separate class because of their syntax: they [[#​order_of_determiners|precede all other determiners]] in a noun phrase, including **la**.
 +
 +They can also be used as [[pronouns#​determiner_pronouns|pronouns]]. ​
 +
 +===== Articles =====
 +
 +Elefen has two **articles** – the definite article **la**, and the indefinite article **un**. "​Definite"​ here means that the noun's referent is "​already defined",​ as opposed to being something new.
 +
 +**La** introduces a noun that denotes someone or something that the listener is already aware of. It is used in the following types of situation:
 +
 +  * The thing has already been mentioned:
 +    * Me ia compra un casa. **La casa** es peti. – I've bought a house. The house is small.
 +  * The listener can easily guess that the thing exists:
 +    * Me ia compra un casa. **La cosina** es grande. – I've bought a house. The kitchen is large.
 +  * The rest of the sentence specifies the thing well enough:
 +    * El ia perde **la numeros** de telefon de sua amis. – She's lost the phone numbers of her friends.
 +  * The listener can perceive the thing directly:
 +    * **La musica** es bela, no? – The music is lovely, isn't it?
 +  * The thing is well known to everyone. This includes fields of study and abstract nouns:
 +    * **La luna** es multe distante de la tera. – The moon is a long way from the earth.
 +    * Me no comprende **la matematica**. – I don't understand mathematics.
 +    * El ama **la cafe**. – She loves coffee.
 +    * La felisia es plu importante ca **la ricia**. – Happiness is more important than wealth.
 +
 +**Un** introduces a singular noun that refers to something the listener is //not// yet aware of. It is not used with plural or uncountable nouns. (It also serves as a [[#​quantifiers|quantifier]] meaning "​one"​.)
 +
 +  * Me vole leje **un libro**. – I want to read a book.
 +  * **Un gato** ia veni en la sala. – A cat came into the room.
 +
 +Some languages have a partitive article that indicates an indefinite quantity of an uncountable noun. Elefen uses **la**, or no article at all:
 +
 +  * Me gusta **la cafe**. – I like coffee / I like the coffee.
 +  * Me gusta **cafe**. – I like coffee.
 +  * Me bevi **cafe**. – I drink coffee.
 +
 +===== Demonstratives =====
 +
 +The **demonstratives** point to the noun's referent, locating it in time or space or the discourse itself.
 +
 +**Esta** means "​this"​. It is similar to **la**, but points to an item that is near the speaker, either physically or metaphorically:​
 +
 +  * Me posese **esta casa**. – I own this house.
 +  * **Esta libros** es merveliosa. – These books are wonderful.
 +  * Me gusta **esta cafe**. – I like this coffee.
 +  * **Esta mense** ia es difisil. – This month was difficult.
 +  * **Esta frase** conteni sinco parolas. – This sentence contains five words.
 +
 +**Acel** means "​that"​. It is also similar to **la**, but points to an item that is distant from the speaker, or at least more distant than **esta**:
 +
 +  * **Acel xico** regarda **acel xicas**. – That boy is looking at those girls.
 +  * Atenta denova en **acel modo**. – Try that way again.
 +  * **Acel torta** es noncomable. – That cake is inedible.
 +
 +**Esta** and **acel** can be converted to [[pronouns#​determiner_pronouns|pronouns]].
 +
 +===== Interrogatives =====
 +
 +The **interrogative determiners** are one way to create [[questions|questions]].
 +
 +**Cual** asks "​which"​ or "​what":​
 +
 +  * **Cual animal** es acel? – What animal is that?
 +  * **Cual vejetales** es la plu bon? – What vegetables are the best?
 +  * Tu veni de **cual pais**? – What country do you come from?
 +  * **Cual fenetras** es rompeda? – Which windows are broken?
 +  * **Cual pinta** tu prefere? – Which paint do you prefer?
 +
 +**Cuanto** asks "how many" with a plural countable noun, and "how much" with an uncountable noun:
 +
 +  * **Cuanto casas** es en tua strada? – How many houses are on your street?
 +  * **Cuanto pan** tu pote come? – How much bread can you eat?
 +
 +**Cual** and **cuanto** are also used as [[pronouns#​interrogative_and_relative_pronouns|pronouns]].
 +
 +===== Selection determiners =====
 +
 +The **selection determiners** pick out specific individuals from the whole set:
 +
 +  * **cada** – each, every
 +  * **cualce** – whichever, any
 +  * **alga** – some, a few, a little, any
 +  * **no** – no
 +  * **sola** – only
 +
 +**Cada** means "​each"​ or "​every",​ considering all the items separately as individuals. The noun must be countable but singular:
 +
 +  * **Cada can** ave un nom. – Each dog has a name.
 +  * Me no ia leje **cada parola**. – I didn't read every word.
 +  * Tu fa la mesma era a **cada ves**. – You make the same mistake every time.
 +
 +**Cualce** means "​any",​ i.e. it doesn'​t matter which. The noun is normally countable. "​Any"​ with an uncountable noun is usually "​alga":​
 +
 +  * Prende **cualce carta**. – Pick any card.
 +  * **Cualce contenadores** va sufisi. – Any containers will do.
 +
 +**Alga** indicates that the identity of the noun's referent is unspecified:​
 +
 +  * Me ia leje acel en **alga libro**. – I read that in some book (or other).
 +  * Cisa me va reveni a **alga dia**. – Maybe I will come back some day.
 +  * **Alga cosa** es rompeda. – Something is broken.
 +
 +When used with a noun that is uncountable,​ or a noun that is countable and plural, **alga** indicates that not only is the referent'​s identity unspecified,​ but its quantity is too. The quantity is often understood to be fairly small – otherwise you would say **multe** – but not as emphatically small as with **poca**:
 +
 +  * Me va leje **alga libros**. – I'm going to read some books / a few books.
 +  * **Alga polvo** ia cade de la sofito. – Some dust fell from the ceiling.
 +  * El ave **alga pan** en sua sesto. – She has some bread in her basket.
 +
 +**No** means "​no"​. It indicates that the noun's referent is absent or non-existent:​
 +
 +  * Me ave **no arbores** en me jardin. – I have no trees / I don't have any trees in my garden.
 +  * Tu va senti **no dole**. – You will feel no pain.
 +  * **No arbor** es plu alta ce la tore Eiffel. – No tree is taller than the Eiffel tower.
 +  * Me ia encontra **no person** en la parce. – I met nobody in the park.
 +
 +**Sola** means "​only",​ i.e. just this and no others:
 +
 +  * El es **la sola dotor** en la vila. – He is the only doctor in town.
 +  * Estas es **la sola du parolas** cual nos no comprende. – These are the only two words we don't understand.
 +  * Me va destrui la mur con **un sola colpa**. – I shall destroy the wall with a single blow.
 +
 +These determiners,​ with the exception of **no** and **sola**, can also be used as [[pronouns#​determiner_pronouns|pronouns]]. They also form the special pronouns **cadun**, **cualcun**,​ **algun** and **nun**, which refer to //people//. To refer to //things//, the determiners are simply followed by **cosa**.
 +
 +===== Possessives =====
 +
 +The **possessive determiners** are **mea**, **tua**, **nosa**, and **vosa**:
 +
 +  * **Mea gato** ia come un mus. – My cat ate a mouse.
 +  * Me gusta multe **tua dansa**. – I like your dance very much.
 +  * **Nosa ecipo** va gania la premio. – Our team will win the prize.
 +
 +Possession can also be indicated with a phrase like **de me**:
 +
 +  * Acel es **la casa de tu**. – That is your house.
 +
 +The third-person possessive is **sua**, regardless of whether the equivalent pronoun would be **el**, **lo**, **los**, **on**, or **se**:
 +
 +  * La ipopotamo abri **sua boca**. – The hippopotamus opens its mouth. //​(reflexive)//​
 +  * Nos regarda **sua dentes**. – We look at its teeth. //(not reflexive)//​
 +
 +===== Quantifiers =====
 +
 +**Quantifiers** are determiners that help express the amount or quantity of the noun's referent:
 +
 +  * **-s** – -s //(plural marker)//
 +  * **un** – one, a
 +  * **du**, **tre**, **cuatro**... – two, three, four...
 +  * **multe** – many, much
 +  * **poca** – few, little
 +  * **plu** – more
 +  * **la plu** – most
 +  * **min** – fewer, less
 +  * **la min** – least
 +
 +The plural marker **-s** is the most basic quantifier. A noun phrase that includes a plural noun does not require any other determiner:
 +
 +  * Me va leje **libros**. – I'm going to read [some] books.
 +  * Me va leje **la libros**. – I'm going to read the books.
 +
 +As well as being the [[#​articles|indefinite article]], **un** is the number "​one"​. It indicates a single quantity of the noun's referent. The noun must therefore be countable but singular:
 +
 +  * Me ave **un frate** e **du sores**. – I have one brother and two sisters.
 +
 +The other [[numbers|cardinal numbers]] – **du**, **tre**, **cuatro**, etc – are likewise quantifiers.
 +
 +  * Me ave **tre gatos** obesa. – I have three fat cats.
 +  * Me ave **cuatro plu anios** ca mea frate. – I am four years older than my brother.
 +
 +**Multe** indicates a large quantity of the noun's referent. It means "​many"​ with a plural countable noun, and "​much"​ with an uncountable noun:
 +
 +  * Esta casa ia sta asi per **multe anios**. – This house has stood here for many years.
 +  * La pijones come **multe pan**. – The pigeons eat a lot of bread.
 +
 +**Poca** is the opposite of **multe**, and indicates a small quantity. It means "​few"​ with a plural countable noun, and "​little"​ with a uncountable noun:
 +
 +  * Me reconose **poca persones**. – I recognize few people. //(really not many)//
 +  * El pote dona **poca aida**. – He can give little help. //(really not much)//
 +  * //​Compare://​ Me pote leje **alga parolas**. — I can read a few words. //(a small number)//
 +
 +**Plu** means "​more"​. It indicates a larger quantity of the noun's referent, and can be used with plural and uncountable nouns. **La plu** means "​most"​ – the largest quantity:
 +
 +  * Tu ave **plu libros** ca me. – You have more books than me.
 +  * **La plu linguas** es bela. – Most languages are beautiful.
 +  * **Plu pan** es en la cosina. – There'​s more bread in the kitchen.
 +  * **La plu fango** es repulsante. – Most mud is revolting.
 +
 +**Min** is the opposite of **plu**, and means "​less"​ or "​fewer"​. It indicates a smaller quantity, and can be used with plural and uncountable nouns. **La min** means "​least"​ or "​fewest":​
 +
 +  * Me desira **min vejetales** ca el. – I want fewer vegetables than her.
 +  * Tu ia leje **la min libros** de cualcun ci me conose. – You have read the least books of anyone I know.
 +  * El ave **min interesa** a cada dia. – He has less interest every day.
 +
 +With the exception of **no**, the quantifiers can all be converted to [[pronouns#​determiner_pronouns|pronouns]].
 +
 +===== Similarity determiners =====
 +
 +Four additional determiners are concerned with similarity and difference:
 +
 +**La mesma** means "the same". The word **la** cannot normally be omitted, although it can be changed to **esta** or **acel**:
 +
 +  * Tu porta **la mesma calsetas** como me. – You're wearing the same socks as me.
 +  * La gera ia comensa en **la mesma anio**. – The war began in the same year.
 +  * Nos va reveni a **esta mesma tema** pos un semana. – We will come back to this same topic in a week's time.
 +
 +**Otra** means "​other":​
 +
 +  * Nos ave aora esta **tre otra problemes**. – We have these three other problems now.
 +  * **La otra solve** ia es plu bon. – The other solution was better.
 +  * Tu ave **otra pan**? – Do you have any other bread?
 +
 +**Tal** means "​such",​ i.e. of this or that kind:
 +
 +  * Me construi un macina de tempo. – I'm building a time machine.
 +    * **Tal cosas** es nonposible. – Such things are impossible.
 +  * Me xerca un abeor. – I'm looking for a beekeeper.
 +    * Me no conose **un tal person**. – I don't know such a person.
 +  * Tu vole jua futbal con nos? – Do you want to play football with us?
 +    * Me prefere evita **tal eserse**. – I prefer to avoid such exercise.
 +  * Tu ave plu libros como estas? – Do you have more books like these?
 +    * Si, me ave du otra **tal libros**. – Yes, I have two other such books.
 +
 +**Propre** means "​own",​ as in "my own", emphasizing the possessor of the noun. It is particularly useful after the determiner **[[#​possessives|sua]]** to clarify that the meaning is reflexive, i.e. that the noun belongs to the subject of the sentence:
 +
 +  * **Mea propre idea** es an plu strana. – My own idea is even stranger.
 +  * El ia trova la xarpe de sua sposo e ia pone lo sirca **sua propre colo**. – She found her husband'​s scarf and put it round her (own) neck.
 +
 +===== Order of determiners =====
 +
 +The determiners follow a certain order:
 +
 +  * The [[#​predeterminers|predeterminers]] **tota** and **ambos**, if present, precede all others.
 +  * Next comes an [[#​articles|article]],​ a [[#​demonstratives|demonstrative]],​ an [[#​interrogatives|interrogative]],​ a [[#​selection_determiner|selection determiner]],​ or a [[#​possessives|possessive]]. There is normally no more than one such determiner in a noun phrase.
 +  * After that, there can be one or more [[#​quantifiers|quantifiers]] or [[#​similarity_determiners|similarity determiners]].
 +  * The [[adjectives|adjectives]] **bon** and **mal**, while not themselves determiners,​ usually precede the noun, following any determiners.
 +
 +For example:
 +
 +  * El ia colie **sua poca posesedas** e parti. – She gathered her few possessions and left.
 +  * Nos no ia tradui ancora **acel otra cuatro frases**. – We still haven'​t translated those other four sentences.
 +  * **Tota la omes** ia vade a la costa. – All the men went to the coast.
  
gramatica/en/determiners.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:45 par Simon