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gramatica:en:conjunctions [2019/08/10 11:47]
Simon
gramatica:en:conjunctions [2019/11/30 14:37] (corente)
Simon [Special subordinators]
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 +====== Conjunctions ======
 +
 +A **conjunction** is a word that joins two things together. There are two kinds: [[#​coordinating_conjunctions|coordinating]] and [[#​subordinating_conjunctions|subordinating]].
 +
 +===== Coordinating conjunctions =====
 +
 +A **coordinating conjunction** joins two components of the same type, producing a larger component of that type. For example, two [[nouns#​noun_phrases|noun phrases]] joined by **e** form a larger noun phrase.
 +
 +There are four coordinating conjunctions:​
 +
 +  * **e** – and //(both components are equally valid)//
 +  * **o** – or //(one of the components is valid; possibly both are)//
 +  * **no** – not, and not, but not //(the first component is valid; the second one isn'​t)//​
 +  * **ma** – but //(both components are equally valid, but contrast with each other)//
 +
 +Examples:
 +
 +  * La om **e** la fem vade a la casa. – The man and the woman go to the house.
 +  * Tu es multe vea **e** saja. – You are very old and wise. //(probably very wise, otherwise the sentence would be **tu es saja e multe vea**//)
 +  * El ia labora ante **e** pos sua vacanse. – He worked before and after his vacation.
 +  * Sua aniversario es en marto **o** april. – Her birthday is in March or April.
 +  * Tu desira cafe **o** te? – Do you want coffee or tea?
 +  * On pote visita la museo a lundi **o** jovedi. – You can visit the museum on Monday or Thursday (or both).
 +  * On ia eleje tu, **no** me. – They elected you, not me.
 +  * Me ia conta no sola la oveas **ma** ance la capras. – I counted not only the sheep but also the goats.
 +
 +With lists of more than two items, the conjunction is normally replaced by a comma except between the final pair. A comma is often included before the conjunction too, in such a list:
 +
 +  * Nos va viaja tra Italia**,** Suiz**,** Osteraic**,​** **e** Deutxland. – We will travel through Italy, Switzerland,​ Austria, and Germany.
 +
 +For emphasis, **e**, **o**, and **no** can be doubled up, with the extra instance placed before the first component. A double **o** rules out the possibility of both components being valid:
 +
 +  * **e... e** – both... and
 +  * **o... o** – either... or
 +  * **no... no** – neither... nor
 +
 +Examples:
 +
 +  * **E** Luis **e** Maria vade a scola. – Both Luis and Maria go to school.
 +  * **O** tu **o** me gania, ma no ambos. – Either you or I will win, but not both.
 +  * Me ave **no** la tempo **no** la desira per leje plu. – I have neither the time nor the desire to read on.
 +
 +**E**, **o**, and **ma** can also join two clauses or sentences:
 +
 +  * Me ia vade a la biblioteca, **e** tu ia visita la museo. – I went to the library and you visited the museum.
 +  * **O** nos solve esta problem, **o** la mundo va fini. – Either we solve this problem, or the world will end.
 +  * **Ma** acel es difisil. – But that's difficult.
 +
 +The adverb **donce** is also used in this way, as a shorthand for **e donce**:
 +
 +  * Me pensa, **donce** me esiste. – I think, therefore I am.
 +  * Nos no ave un mapa, **donce** nos es perdeda. – We don't have a map, so we're lost.
 +
 +===== Subordinating conjunctions =====
 +
 +A **subordinating conjunction** joins a clause to the containing sentence, indicating its role in that sentence.
 +
 +There are three types: [[#​pronoun_subordinators|pronoun subordinators]],​ [[#​adverb_subordinators|adverb subordinators]],​ and [[#​special_subordinators|special subordinators]].
 +
 +===== Pronoun subordinators =====
 +
 +The interrogative pronouns **cual** and **ci** can also serve as subordinating conjunctions (**relative pronouns**) to introduce [[clauses#​relative_clauses|relative clauses]]:
 +
 +  * La om **ci** ia abita asi ia vade a New York. – The man who lived here went to New York. 
 +  * La poma **cual** ia cade de mea saco es aora noncomable. – The apple which fell from my bag is now inedible.
 +  * La fem **de ci** nos parla labora a mea ofisia. – The woman of whom we speak works at my office. ​
 +  * Tua libro, **en cual** me ia scrive sua nom, es sur la table. – Your book, in which I wrote her name, is on the table. ​
 +
 +They normally relate to a preceding noun. Sometimes, that noun is omitted. In such cases, a pronoun can be added to clarify the meaning:
 +
 +  * Esta es **lo cual** parteni a tu. – This is what ("that which"​) belongs to you.
 +  * La auto blu es **lo en cual** nos vole viaja. – The blue car is the one in which we want to travel.
 +  * Acel es **el ci** me ia vide. – That's who I saw / That's the one I saw / That's the person I saw.
 +  * Tu es **el a ci** me ia parla ier. – You're who I spoke to yesterday.
 +  * **Ci** osa, gania. – Who dares, wins.
 +
 +The use of **cual** and **ci** en [[questions#​reported_questions|reported questions]] is very similar.
 +
 +===== Adverb subordinators =====
 +
 +The interrogative adverbs – **do**, **cuando**, **cuanto**, **como**, and **perce** – can serve as conjunctions introducing [[clauses#​adverbial_clauses|adverbial clauses]]:
 +
 +  * Nos parla **como** nos pensa. – We speak as (= in the way in which) we think.
 +  * Me dormi **cuando** me pote. – I sleep when I can.
 +  * Me va esplica **cuanto** me comprende. – I will explain as much as I understand.
 +  * Nos abita **do** la du rios encontra. – We live where the two rivers meet.
 +  * Me ia fini la taxe **en cuando** tu ia parla a me. – I finished the task while you were talking to me.
 +  * Nos va core **a do** la vias encontra. – We will run to where the roads meet.
 +
 +They can also be used after a noun, as conjunctions introducing [[clauses#​relative_clauses|relative clauses]]:
 +
 +  * Me labora en Paris, **do** me abita. – I work in Paris, where I live.
 +  * El va visita en Julio, **cuando** la clima es bon. – He will visit in July, when the weather'​s nice.
 +  * Acel es la razona **perce** Juan ia parti. – That's the reason why John left / That's the reason John left.
 +
 +And they are also used in [[questions#​reported_questions|reported questions]] (a type of [[clauses#​noun_clauses|noun clause]]).
 +
 +===== Special subordinators =====
 +
 +The special subordinating conjunctions **ce** and **esce** introduce [[clauses#​noun_clauses|noun clauses]]. **Ce** introduces a reported statement, and **esce** introduces a reported question about the truth of a statement.
 +
 +  * Me pensa **ce** tu nesesa un vacanse. – I think (that) you need a vacation.
 +  * Me no sabe **esce** el va veni. – I don't know if/whether he'll come.
 +
 +They can be used after certain nouns, adjectives, and prepositions to complete the meaning:
 +
 +  * La idea **ce** la Sol orbita la Tera es un era. – The idea that the Sun orbits the Earth is a mistake.
 +  * Nos es surprendeda **ce** vos no ia cexa. – We are surprised (that) you didn't complain.
 +  * Me es felis **ce** tu ia susede. – I'm glad (that) you succeeded.
 +  * Los no ia es serta **esce** la tren ia parti ja. – They weren'​t sure if/whether the train had already left.
 +  * La gato ia entra a la sala sin **ce** algun vide el. – The cat entered the room without anyone seeing it.
 +
 +**Ce** can also be used to introduce a clause that expresses a result:
 +
 +  * El ia es tan fatigada **ce** el no ia pote pensa. – She was so tired (that) she couldn'​t think.
 +  * El ia es tan fame **ce** el ia pote oia la ronca de sua stomaco. – He was so hungry (that) he could hear his stomach rumbling.
 +
 +The special subordinators **afin**, **car**, **si**, and **ca** introduce [[clauses#​adverbial_clauses|adverbial clauses]]:
 +
 +  * Me va veni **si** tu clama. – I will come if you call.
 +  * Me labora **afin** mea enfantes pote come. – I work so that my children can eat.
 +  * Lo es calda **car** la sol brilia. – It is hot because the sun is shining.
 +  * Esta es plu labora **ca** me ia espeta. – This is more work than I expected.
  
gramatica/en/conjunctions.txt · Editada: 2019/11/30 14:37 par Simon