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A conjunction is a word that joins two things together. There are two kinds: coordinating and subordinating.

Coordinating conjunctions

A coordinating conjunction joins two components of the same type, producing a larger component of that type. For example, two noun phrases joined by e form a larger noun phrase.

There are four coordinating conjunctions:

  • e – and (both components are equally valid)
  • o – or (one of the components is valid; possibly both are)
  • no – not, and not, but not (the first component is valid; the second one isn't)
  • ma – but (both components are equally valid, but contrast with each other)


  • La om e la fem vade a la casa. – The man and the woman go to the house.
  • Tu es multe vea e saja. – You are very old and wise. (probably very wise, otherwise the sentence would be tu es saja e multe vea)
  • El ia labora ante e pos sua vacanse. – He worked before and after his vacation.
  • Sua aniversario es en marto o april. – Her birthday is in March or April.
  • Tu desira cafe o te? – Do you want coffee or tea?
  • On pote visita la museo a lundi o jovedi. – You can visit the museum on Monday or Thursday (or both).
  • On ia eleje tu, no me. – They elected you, not me.
  • Me ia conta no sola la oveas ma ance la capras. – I counted not only the sheep but also the goats.

With lists of more than two items, the conjunction is normally replaced by a comma except between the final pair. A comma is often included before the conjunction too, in such a list:

  • Nos va viaja tra Italia, Suiz, Osteraic, e Deutxland. – We will travel through Italy, Switzerland, Austria, and Germany.

For emphasis, e, o, and no can be doubled up, with the extra instance placed before the first component. A double o rules out the possibility of both components being valid:

  • e… e – both… and
  • o… o – either… or
  • no… no – neither… nor


  • E Luis e Maria vade a scola. – Both Luis and Maria go to school.
  • O tu o me gania, ma no ambos. – Either you or I will win, but not both.
  • Me ave no la tempo no la desira per leje plu. – I have neither the time nor the desire to read on.

E, o, and ma can also join two clauses or sentences:

  • Me ia vade a la biblioteca, e tu ia visita la museo. – I went to the library and you visited the museum.
  • O nos solve esta problem, o la mundo va fini. – Either we solve this problem, or the world will end.
  • Ma acel es difisil. – But that's difficult.

The adverb donce is also used in this way, as a shorthand for e donce:

  • Me pensa, donce me esiste. – I think, therefore I am.
  • Nos no ave un mapa, donce nos es perdeda. – We don't have a map, so we're lost.

Subordinating conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to the containing sentence, indicating its role in that sentence.

There are three types: pronoun subordinators, adverb subordinators, and special subordinators.

Pronoun subordinators

The interrogative pronouns cual and ci can also serve as subordinating conjunctions (relative pronouns) to introduce relative clauses:

  • La om ci ia abita asi ia vade a New York. – The man who lived here went to New York.
  • La poma cual ia cade de mea saco es aora noncomable. – The apple which fell from my bag is now inedible.
  • La fem de ci nos parla labora a mea ofisia. – The woman of whom we speak works at my office.
  • Tua libro, en cual me ia scrive sua nom, es sur la table. – Your book, in which I wrote her name, is on the table.

They normally relate to a preceding noun. Sometimes, that noun is omitted. In such cases, a pronoun can be added to clarify the meaning:

  • Esta es lo cual parteni a tu. – This is what (“that which”) belongs to you.
  • La auto blu es lo en cual nos vole viaja. – The blue car is the one in which we want to travel.
  • Acel es el ci me ia vide. – That's who I saw / That's the one I saw / That's the person I saw.
  • Tu es el a ci me ia parla ier. – You're who I spoke to yesterday.
  • Ci osa, gania. – Who dares, wins.

The use of cual and ci en reported questions is very similar.

Adverb subordinators

The interrogative adverbs – do, cuando, cuanto, como, and perce – can serve as conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses:

  • Nos parla como nos pensa. – We speak as (= in the way in which) we think.
  • Me dormi cuando me pote. – I sleep when I can.
  • Me va esplica cuanto me comprende. – I will explain as much as I understand.
  • Nos abita do la du rios encontra. – We live where the two rivers meet.
  • Me ia fini la taxe en cuando tu ia parla a me. – I finished the task while you were talking to me.
  • Nos va core a do la vias encontra. – We will run to where the roads meet.

They can also be used after a noun, as conjunctions introducing relative clauses:

  • Me labora en Paris, do me abita. – I work in Paris, where I live.
  • El va visita en Julio, cuando la clima es bon. – He will visit in July, when the weather's nice.
  • Acel es la razona perce Juan ia parti. – That's the reason why John left / That's the reason John left.

And they are also used in reported questions (a type of noun clause).

Special subordinators

The special subordinating conjunctions ce and esce introduce noun clauses. Ce introduces a reported statement, and esce introduces a reported question about the truth of a statement.

  • Me pensa ce tu nesesa un vacanse. – I think (that) you need a vacation.
  • Me no sabe esce el va veni. – I don't know if/whether he'll come.

They can be used after certain nouns, adjectives, and prepositions to complete the meaning:

  • La idea ce la Sol orbita la Tera es un era. – The idea that the Sun orbits the Earth is a mistake.
  • Nos es surprendeda ce vos no ia cexa. – We are surprised (that) you didn't complain.
  • Me es felis ce tu ia susede. – I'm glad (that) you succeeded.
  • Los no ia es serta esce la tren ia parti ja. – They weren't sure if/whether the train had already left.
  • La gato ia entra la sala sin ce algun vide el. – The cat entered the room without anyone seeing it.

Ce can also be used to introduce a clause that expresses a result:

  • El ia es tan fatigada ce el no ia pote pensa. – She was so tired (that) she couldn't think.
  • El ia es tan fame ce el ia pote oia la ronca de sua stomaco. – He was so hungry (that) he could hear his stomach rumbling.

The special subordinators afin, car, si, and ca introduce adverbial clauses:

  • Me va veni si tu clama. – I will come if you call.
  • Me labora afin mea enfantes pote come. – I work so that my children can eat.
  • Lo es calda car la sol brilia. – It is hot because the sun is shining.
  • Esta es plu labora ca me ia espeta. – This is more work than I expected.
gramatica/en/conjunctions.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:47 par Simon