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gramatica:en:clauses [2019/08/10 11:47]
Simon
gramatica:en:clauses [2019/11/30 11:05] (corente)
Simon [Adverbial clauses]
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 +====== Clauses ======
 +
 +Like a sentence, a **clause** contains a subject and a verb, but it forms part of a larger sentence.
 +
 +Every sentence contains a **main clause**. This can be modified in a variety of ways by one or more **subordinate clauses**. If a subordinate clause modifies a [[nouns#​noun_phrases|noun phrase]], it is called a [[#​relative_clauses|relative clause]]. If it modifies a verb or the entire main clause, it is called an [[#​adverbial_clauses|adverbial clause]]. And if it plays the part of a noun, it is called a [[#​noun_clauses|noun clause]].
 +
 +In addition, a sentence can contain [[#​coordinated_clauses|more than one main clause]].
 + 
 +===== Relative clauses =====
 +
 +A **relative clause** is a clause that modifies a noun. Relative clauses follow the nouns they modify, and they usually start with one of the [[pronouns#​interrogative_and_relative_pronouns|relative pronouns]] **ci** and **cual**:
 +
 +  * La om **ci** ia abita asi ia vade a New York. – The man who lived here went to New York.
 +  * La poma **cual** ia cade de mea saco es aora noncomable. – The apple which fell from my bag is now inedible.
 +
 +For clarity, a relative clause can be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, especially if it's long or complicated:​
 +
 +  * La poma, **cual** ia cade de mea saco en la fango a matina ier, es aora noncomable. – The apple, which fell from my bag into the mud yesterday morning, is now inedible.
 +
 +Some relative clauses are not essential to the meaning of the sentence, but simply add a comment in passing. Such clauses are always set off by commas:
 +
 +  * La can, **ci** ave manxas negra, ia morde la polisior. – The dog, which has black markings, bit the policeman.
 +  * Mea padre, **ci** ia jubila, abita en Mexico. – My father, who is retired, lives in Mexico.
 +  * Esta jus, **cual** Ana ia fa, ave un bon sabor. – This juice, which Anna made, tastes good.
 +
 +**Ci** and **cual** can behave as either the subject or the object of the relative clause. Objects normally follow the verb, but when one of these is the object, it precedes both the subject and the verb:
 +
 +  * La fem **ci** me ama veni de Frans. – The woman (whom) I love comes from France.
 +  * La robot **cual** me ia construi no opera. – The robot I built doesn'​t work.
 +  * Nos ta vade a mea casa, **cual** es prosima. – Let's go to my house, which is nearby.
 +
 +When the relative pronoun is the object of a [[prepositions|preposition]],​ the preposition comes first:
 +
 +  * La fem **de ci** nos parla labora a mea ofisia. – The woman of whom we speak works at my office.
 +  * Tua libro, **en cual** me ia scrive sua nom, es sur la table. – Your book, in which I wrote her name, is on the table.
 +
 +When **de ci** or **de cual** introduces a possessed noun within the relative clause, that noun is usually introduced by **sua** for clarity:
 +
 +  * Esta fem, **de ci** **sua** sposo labora en la banco, es un cocor eselente. – This woman, whose husband works at the bank, is an excellent cook.
 +  * La fem, **de ci** tu conose **sua** sposo, labora a me ofisia. – The woman, whose husband you know, works at my office.
 +  * La fem, **de ci** tu ia dona la letera a **sua** sposo, es encantante. – The woman, whose husband you gave the letter to, is charming.
 +  * Mea auto, **de cual** **sua** motor es rompeda, es aora dejetada. – My car, whose motor is broken, is now garbage.
 +
 +In some languages, a relative clause can modify the whole of the preceding clause. In Elefen, if that would be ambiguous, an expression such as **e lo**, **e esta**, or **e acel** can be used instead:
 +
 +  * El pote salta a un metre alta, **e esta** ia surprende me. – He can jump a meter high, which surprised me.
 +  * Los studia la pragmatica, **e acel es per dise** la rol de contesto en la comprende de frases. – They'​re studying pragmatics, which is to say the role of context in the understanding of sentences.
 +
 +Another way to start a relative clause is with a [[adverbs#​interrogative_and_relative_adverbs|relative adverb]]:
 +
 +  * Me labora en Paris, **do** me abita. – I work in Paris, where I live.
 +  * El va visita en julio, **cuando** la clima es bon. – He will visit in July, when the weather is good.
 +  * Acel es la razona **perce** Juan ia parti. – That's the reason why Juan left.
 +
 +Such relative clauses are often similar to [[#​adverbial_clauses|adverbial clauses]]:
 +
 +  * Me labora **do** me abita. – I eat where I live.
 +  * El va visita **cuando** la clima es bon. – He will visit when the weather is good.
 +
 +===== Adverbial clauses =====
 +
 +An **adverbial clause** modifies either the verb of the main clause or the main clause itself. An adverbial clause is introduced by one of the [[conjunctions#​adverb_subordinators|adverb subordinators]] (**como**, **cuando**, **cuanto**, **do**) or one of the [[conjunctions#​special_subordinators|special subordinators]] **si**, **car**, **afin**, and **ca**:
 +
 +  * Me no teme la can, **car** el es multe peti. – I am not afraid of the dog, because it is very small.
 +  * **Si** los redui tro rapida sua pesa, los va regania lo. – If they lose weight too quickly, they will regain it.
 +  * Me core **afin** la rinoseros no catura me. – I'm running so that the rhinos don't catch me.
 +  * Esta es plu labora **ca** me ia previde. – This is more work than I expected.
 +  * El ia scrive **cuando** sua madre ia demanda. – He wrote when his mother asked.
 +  * El dise ce el es felis **do** el abita. – He says that he is happy where he lives.
 +  * On no ia permete ce me fa la cosas **como** me ia desira. – I wasn't allowed to do things as I wanted.
 +
 +An adverbial clause introduced by a [[conjunctions#​adverb_subordinators|adverb subordinators]] (**como**, **cuando**, **cuanto**, **do**) can be thought of as an abbreviated [[clauses#​relative_clauses|relative clause]]. For example, the last three examples above can also be expressed as follows:
 +
 +  * El ia scrive **a la ora cuando** sua madre ia demanda. – He wrote at the time his mother asked.
 +  * El dise ce el es felis **a la loca do** el abita. – He says that he is happy at the place where he lives.
 +  * On no ia permete ce me fa la cosas **en la modo** como me desira. – I wasn't allowed to do things in the way I wanted.
 +
 +===== Noun clauses =====
 +
 +A **noun clause** functions like a noun: it can be the subject or object of a verb or preposition. Noun clauses are introduced by the [[conjunctions#​special_subordinators|special subordinators]] **ce** or **esce**, by one of the [[conjunctions#​pronoun_subordinators|pronoun subordinators]] **ci** and **cual**, or by one of the [[conjunctions#​adverb_subordinators|adverb subordinators]].
 +
 +To see if a clause is really a noun clause, substitute "​he",​ "​she",​ "​it",​ or "​they"​ for the clause. ​ If that produces a good sentence, the clause is a noun clause. Noun clauses are typically objects of verbs of thinking, sensing, or emotion:
 +
 +  * Me vide **do** tu es. – I see where you are.
 +  * **Cuando** me va parti, me no sabe. – When I will depart, I don't know.
 +  * Me sabe **de do** tu veni. – I know where you come from.
 +  * Me sabe **ci** ia dise acel. – I know who said that.
 +  * Me ia oia **cual** tu ia dise. – I heard what you said.
 +  * Me pote divina **cual** el leje. – I can guess which one he's reading.
 +
 +Many noun clauses are introduced by the [[conjunctions#​special_subordinators|special subordinators]] **ce** ("​that"​) or **esce** ("​whether"​):​
 +
 +  * Me pensa **ce** el es bela. – I think that she is beautiful.
 +  * Me pensa **ce** el pote salta a un metre alta. – I think that he can jump a meter high.
 +  * Me pensa **ce** si. – I think so.
 +  * Me duta **esce** el pote salta a un metre alta. – I doubt whether/​that he can jump a meter high.
 +
 +Noun clauses often report what someone has said, thought, or asked. In all cases, the tense of the verb in the noun clause remains the same as that in the original speech, thought, or question:
 +
 +  * Me ia dise: "Me **veni** de London."​ (~)→(~) Me ia dise ce me **veni** de London.
 +    * I said: "I come from London."​ (~)→(~) I said that I came from London.
 +  * El pensa: "La tren **ia es** tarda."​ (~)→(~) El pensa ce la tren **ia es** tarda.
 +    * She thinks: "The train was late." (~)→(~) She thinks the train was late.
 +  * El ia demanda: "​Cuando nos **va parti**?"​ (~)→(~) El ia demanda cuando nos **va parti**.
 +    * He asked: "When are we going to leave?"​ (~)→(~) He asked when we would leave.
 +  * Me va vole sabe: "Do la selebra **es**?"​ (~)→(~) Me va vole sabe do la selebra **es**.
 +    * I'll want to know: "​Where'​s the party?"​ (~)→(~) I'll want to know where the party is.
 +
 +Relative and adverbial clauses can sometimes be confused with noun clauses. To clarify that a relative or adverbial clause is meant, add a noun or pronoun before **cual** or **ci**:
 +
 +  * Me no comprende **la ata** cual tu intende. – I don't understand the action you intend.
 +  * Me ia oia **lo** cual tu ia dise. – I heard what you said.
 +  * Me no conose **el** ci tu ia indica. – I don't know the person who you pointed to.
 +  * Me vide **la loca** do tu es. – I see the place where you are.
 +  * Me no sabe **la ora** cuando me va parti. – I don't know the hour when I will leave.
 +
 +===== Coordinated clauses =====
 +
 +Two main clauses can be linked together into a single sentence by means of [[conjunctions#​coordinating_conjunctions|coordinating conjunctions]]. A comma is often included before the conjunction:​
 +
 +  * Me ia desira la auto, **ma** me no ia ave la mone. – I wanted the car, but I didn't have the money.
 +  * Me desira un bon carera **e** me vole ance trova un sposa bela. – I want a good career and I also want to find a beautiful wife.
 +
 +Such clauses can stand as independent sentences, with or without conjunctions:​
 +
 +  * El ia vole canta **e** el ia vole dansa, **ma** el ia teme. – He wanted to sing and he wanted to dance, but he was afraid.
 +  * El ia vole canta. **E** el ia vole dansa. **Ma** el ia teme. – He want to sing. And he wanted to dance. But he was afraid.
 +  * El ia vole canta. El ia vole dansa. El ia teme. – He wanted to sing. He wanted to dance. He was afraid.
  
gramatica/en/clauses.txt · Editada: 2019/11/30 11:05 par Simon