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gramatica:en:adverbs [2019/07/14 11:26]
Simon
gramatica:en:adverbs [2019/08/10 11:46] (corente)
Simon
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 +====== Adverbs ======
 +
 +Just as [[adjectives]] are words that modify [[nouns]], so adverbs are words that modify almost anything else, such as [[verbs]], adjectives, other adverbs, [[determiners]],​ [[prepositions]],​ [[nouns#​noun_phrases|noun phrases]], and even whole sentences. Typically, adverbs give information about place, time, circumstance,​ cause, manner, or degree.
 +
 +===== Position =====
 +
 +In Elefen, adverbs and adjectives have the same form. The difference is made clear by positioning:​ adjectives follow nouns; adverbs follow verbs and precede other words:
 +
 +  * La om **ia studia atendosa** la testo. – The man studied the text carefully. //​(modifying a verb)//
 +  * Me ia veni asi en un tren **riable** lenta. – I came here on a ridiculously slow train. //​(modifying an adjective)//​
 +  * La tren ia move **asurda** lenta. – The train moved absurdly slowly. //​(modifying another adverb)//
 +  * Me no **oia multe bon** tu. – I can't hear you very well. //​("​multe"​ modifying "​bon",​ and "multe bon" modifying "​oia"​)//​
 +  * **Cuasi** sento persones ia espeta sur la plataforma. – Almost a hundred people were waiting on the platform. //​(modifying a quantifier)//​
 +  * On ia escava un buco **direta** ante me porte. – They'​ve dug a hole right in front of my door. //​(modifying a preposition)//​
 +  * **Sola** la manico es rompeda. – Only the handle is broken. //​(modifying a noun phrase)//
 +  * **Strana**, el ia porta un balde de pexes. – Strangely, he was carrying a bucket of fish. //​(modifying a sentence)//
 +
 +An adverb (or adverbial phrase) that modifies a verb (or the whole sentence) can also be placed at the beginning of the sentence. And if it doesn'​t cause confusion, an adverb can be placed at the end of the sentence too:
 +  * El dansa **bon**. – He dances well.
 +  * **Pronto** el va cade. – Soon he will fall.
 +  * **Surprendente**,​ el es un xico **multe** bon. – Surprisingly,​ he is a very good boy.
 +  * Me leje **felis** la libro. – I read the book happily.
 +
 +In some cases, an adverb preceding an adjective can be joined to it with a hyphen to clarify the meaning:
 +
 +  * la parolas **nova-creada** – the newly created words
 +
 +Another way to make an adverbial meaning clear is to say **en modo** or **a grado**:
 +
 +  * La melodia es bela **en modo** surprendente. – The tune is surprisingly good.
 +
 +===== Comparison =====
 +
 +Comparison of adverbs is exactly like [[adjectives#​comparison|comparison of adjectives]].
 +
 +===== Primary adverbs =====
 +
 +In addition to the huge number of adverbs derived from adjectives, Elefen has a few words that are only adverbs:
 +  * **cisa** – perhaps
 +  * **cuasi** – almost
 +  * **tan** – so //(to such an extent)//
 +  * **tro** – too //​(excessively)//​
 +  * **asi** – here
 +  * **ala** – there
 +  * **an** – even //(contrary to expectation)//​
 +  * **ance** – also
 +  * **ancora** – again, still
 +  * **aora** – now
 +  * **alora** – then //(at that time)//
 +  * **ja** – already
 +  * **nunca** – never
 +  * **sempre** – always
 +  * **pronto** – soon
 +  * **ier** – yesterday
 +  * **oji** – today
 +  * **doman** – tomorrow
 +
 +**Tan** is used in exclamations:​
 +
 +  * Un vista **tan** bela! – What a lovely view!
 +  * **Tan** stonante! – How amazing!
 +
 +===== Quantifier adverbs =====
 +
 +Certain [[determiners#​quantifiers|quantifiers]] can be converted to adverbs, indicating the extent or degree to which something is the case.
 +
 +  * **no** – not
 +  * **alga** – some
 +  * **multe** – much
 +  * **poca** – little
 +  * **plu** – more
 +  * **min** – less
 +  * **la plu** – most
 +  * **la min** – least 
 +
 +**No** as an adverb means "​not",​ "to no extent"​. It negates what it modifies. As a special case, when it modifies a verb, it //​precedes//​ the verb:
 +  * Los **no** va comprende. – They won't understand.
 +  * Nos ave **no** sola un orania, ma ance du bananas. – We've got not only an orange, but two bananas as well.
 +  * O, **no** esta problem denova! – Oh, not this problem again!
 +
 +**Alga** as an adverb means "​some",​ "​somewhat",​ "​fairly",​ "to some extent":​
 +  * Acel es un caso **alga** spesial. – That's a rather special case.
 +  * **Alga** confusada, el ia cade en la lago. – Somewhat confused, he fell into the lake.
 +
 +**Multe** as an adverb means "​much",​ "​very",​ "to a large extent":​
 +  * Me es **multe** coler. – I am very angry.
 +  * El ama **multe** la femes. – He loves women a lot.
 +
 +**Poca** as an adverb means "​little",​ "not much", "to only a small extent":​
 +  * Me es **poca** interesada. – I'm not very interested.
 +  * El core **poca**. – He runs only a little.
 +
 +**Plu** and **min** as adverbs mean "​more"​ and "​less",​ "to a greater extent"​ and "to a lesser extent":​
 +  * Tu aspeta **plu** joven ca me. – You look younger than me.
 +  * No parla **plu**. – Don't talk any more.
 +  * Me es **min** contente con la resulta ca me ta prefere. – I'm less pleased with the result than I would like.
 +
 +**La plu** and **la min** as adverbs mean "​most"​ and "​least",​ "to the maximum extent"​ and "to the minimum extent":​
 +  * "​Pardona"​ es la parola **la plu** difisil. – "​Sorry"​ is the hardest word.
 +  * El es la om **la min** interesante en la mundo. – He is the least interesting man in the world.
 +  * A **la min**, nos ave ancora la un la otra. – At least we still have each other.
 +
 +===== Interrogative and relative adverbs =====
 +
 +The following adverbs can be used in several ways: 
 +
 +  * **cuando** – when
 +  * **do** – where
 +  * **como** – how
 +  * **cuanto** – how many, how much
 +  * **perce** – why 
 +
 +They create direct and indirect [[questions|questions]],​ and they introduce [[clauses#​relative_clauses|relative clauses]]. As an extension of their relative use, they also behave like [[conjunctions|conjunctions]] introducing adverbial clauses – **cuando**, for example, is then short for **a la tempo cuando**. They can also be introduced by [[prepositions|prepositions]].
 +
 +**Cuando** means "​when"​ (**a cual tempo**, **en cual tempo**):
 +
 +  * **Cuando** nos va come? – When are we going to eat?
 +  * La enfante demanda **cuando** nos va come. – The child is asking when we are going to eat.
 +  * En la anio **cuando** me ia nase, la clima ia es multe calda. – In the year when I was born, the weather was very hot.
 +  * **Cuando** nos ariva, me va dormi. – (At the time) when we arrive, I will sleep.
 +  * Nos va canta **ante cuando** nos dansa. – We will sing before we dance.
 +  * Nos va dansa **pos cuando** nos canta. – We will dance after we sing.
 +  * Nos va dansa **asta cuando** nos adormi. – We will dance until we fall asleep.
 +
 +**Do** means "​where"​ (**a cual loca**, **en cual loca**). When used with a verb of movement, **do** often means "to where":​
 +
 +  * **Do** es la can? – Where'​s the dog?
 +  * Me no sabe **do** nos vade. – I don't know where we're going.
 +  * En la pais **do** me ia nase, la clima es multe calda. – In the country where I was born, the weather is very hot.
 +  * El ia dormi **do** el sta. – He slept where he stood.
 +  * Me veni **de do** tu ia visita me. – I'm coming from where you visited me.
 +  * La polisior ia desinia un sirculo **sirca do** el ia trova la clave. – The policewoman drew a circle around where she found the key.
 +
 +**Como** means "​how"​ (**en cual modo**). It also serves as a [[prepositions|preposition]] meaning "​like",​ "​as":​
 +
 +  * **Como** tu conose mea nom? – How do you know my name?
 +  * Me no comprende **como** tu conose mea nom. – I don't understand how you know my name.
 +  * La manera **como** tu pasea es riable. – The manner in which you walk is ridiculous.
 +  * Me parla **como** me pensa. – I speak as/how I think.
 +  * La descrive ia difere multe **de como** la loca aspeta vera. – The description differed greatly from how the place really looks.
 +  * Tua oios es **como** los de un falcon. – Your eyes are like those of a hawk.
 +
 +**Cuanto** means "how much" or "how many" (**en cual cuantia**). It also serves as a [[determiners#​quantifier|quantifier]] with the same meaning:
 +
 +  * **Cuanto** la orolojo custa? – How much does the watch cost?
 +  * **Cuanto** tu ia compra? – How many/much did you buy?
 +  * **Cuanto** tu desira esta torta? – How much do you want this cake?
 +  * Me va demanda **cuanto** ia ariva. – I will ask how many have arrived.
 +  * Nos va aida **cuanto** nos pote. – We will help as much as we can.
 +  * Tu sabe **cuanto** me ama tu? – Do you know how much I love you?
 +
 +**Perce** means "​why"​ (in various senses: **par cual causa**, **per cual razona**, **con cual intende**). The corresponding [[conjunctions|conjunctions]] are **car** ("​because",​ "for the reason that") and **afin** ("so that", "with the intention that"​). The special word **perce** is always used, not **per cual**:
 +
 +  * **Perce** tu core? – Why are you running?
 +  * La fem ia demanda **perce** la fenetra es rompeda. – The woman asked why the the window was broken.
  
gramatica/en/adverbs.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:46 par Simon