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gramatica:en:adjectives [2019/07/14 11:26]
Simon
gramatica:en:adjectives [2019/08/10 11:45] (corente)
Simon
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 +
 +====== Adjectives ======
 +
 +An **adjective** is a word that modifies the meaning of a [[nouns|noun]]. Typical adjectives denote the qualities, properties, or attributes of the referents of their nouns.
 +
 +In Elefen, adjectives do not change to indicate number or gender.
 +
 +===== Position =====
 +
 +Most adjectives follow the noun they modify. However, **bon** ("​good"​) and **mal** ("​bad"​) normally precede the noun, unless they are themselves modified:
 +
 +  * un **bon** can – a good dog
 +  * un can plu **bon** – a better dog //(modified by **plu**)//
 +  * la **mal** enfante – the bad child
 +  * un **mal** can bon instruida – a bad dog well trained
 +  * **bon** enfantes mal comprendeda – good children poorly understood
 +
 +In most cases, it's possible to add more than one adjective after the noun without causing confusion. But in some cases, one of the adjectives may also be understood as an adverb modifying the meaning of the following adjective. **E** can be placed between adjectives to avoid the confusion:
 +
 +  * la nara **vera longa** – the really long story //(vera = averbo)//
 +  * la nara **vera e longa** – the true (and) long story //(vera = ajetivo)//
 +  * la om **grande, forte, e stupida** – the big, strong, stupid man //(tre ajetivos)//
 +
 +In some cases, an adjective is placed before the noun: for style in poetry or stories, o when two adjectives of similar weight are involved:
 +
 +  * la **peti** casa bela – the lovely little house
 +  * un **fea** arbor vea – an ugly old tree
 +
 +The most suitable adjectives for use before the noun are the simplest and shortest ones, such as **bela**, **fea**, **nova**, **vea**, **grande**, and **peti**.
 +
 +===== Comparison =====
 +
 +Comparative adjectives are formed by adding the adverbs **plu** ("​more"​) and **min** ("​less"​). "​Than"​ is **ca**:
 +
 +  * La cosina es **plu calda ca** la jardin. – The kitchen is hotter than the garden.
 +  * Esta leto es **min comfortosa ca** me ia previde. – This bed is less comfortable than I expected.
 +
 +Superlative adjectives are formed by adding the adverbs **la plu** ("​most"​) and **la min** ("​least"​):​
 +
 +  * La sol es la ojeto **la plu calda** en la sistem solal. – The sun is the hottest object in the solar system.
 +  * El ia ave un fia **la plu bela** en la mundo. – She had a daughter, the most beautiful (of daughters) in the world.
 +
 +[[numbers#​ordinal_numbers|Ordinal numbers]] can be combined with the superlative construction:​
 +
 +  * Vega es la stela **sinco la plu briliante** en la sielo de note. – Vega is the fifth brightest star in the night sky.
 +  * El ia deveni la om **tre de la plu ricas** en la mundo. – He became the third richest man in the world.
 +
 +Equality comparisons use the combination **tan**... **como**... ("​so... as..."​):​
 +
 +  * La arbor ia es **tan** alta **como** un casa. – The tree was as tall as a house.
 +  * On es **tan** joven **como** on senti. – You're as young as you feel.
 +
 +===== Adjectives as nouns =====
 +
 +Any adjective can be reused unchanged as a noun, whose meaning is a person or a thing that has that adjective'​s quality. The resulting noun obeys the normal rules for nouns – it takes **-s** when plural, requires a determiner, and can be modified by adjectives of its own:
 +
 +  * Esta anelo es perfeta sirculo. Lo es **un sirculo perfeta**. – This ring is perfectly circular. It is a perfect circle.
 +  * Marilyn es un blonde, e seniores prefere **blondes**. – Marilyn is a blonde, and gentlemen prefer blondes.
  
gramatica/en/adjectives.txt · Editada: 2019/08/10 11:45 par Simon